Some of them are tasks characteristics and group composition. To begin with, let’s define an important concept that is going to be used when talking about the task characteristics and their effect on the group performance. This concept is task interdependence, which according to George and Jones can be defined as “the extent to which the work performed by one member can affect the work performance of other group members” . An American sociologist, James David Thompson, made a model of group tasks, where identified three types of task interdependence: pooled, sequential and reciprocal. Pooled task interdependence requires each member of the group to do his/her own work as an input to the group performance.
strategies that contribute to the development of the language system which the learner constructs and (which) aﬀect learning directly’’ (Rubin, 1987, p. 23). Oxford (1990) further defined language learning strategies as steps taking to facilitate the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of information. O’Mally and Chamot (1990) studies viewed learning strategies as “the special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn or retain new information” (p. 1). The term ‘strategy’ in the context of language learning refers to a specific type of action on behavior reported to by a language learner in order to improve performance in both using an learning a language (Naiman , Frolich, Stem & Todesco 1978; Wenden & Rubin 1987; Oxford 1990). Good and successful learners can improve their learning process by exploiting the strategies and make the less effective students follow the same
Grabe (2001) argues that Applied Linguistics deals with Language based problems in the real world. Catford (1998) argues, Applied Linguistics has moved from its early focus on language teaching to inclusion of several other aspects such as translation, Language planning, research in language policies. Despite this leap into addressing other areas besides language teaching, literature seems to support fact that most people view applied linguistics as either focusing entirely on language teaching or acting as a bridge between linguistics and language teaching. Applied Linguistics has undergone a considerable expansion of its scope and now contributes its theoretical perspectives to the range of areas. (Baynham 2001: 26).
Annotation a) Article 1: Butler, Y. G. (2011). The Implementation of Communicative and Task-Based Language Teaching in the Asia-Pacific Region. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 36–57. In this article, the author synthesizes and draws some crucial conclusions from the research findings of an impressive amount of research carried out by various scholars on the use of both CLT and Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT) in the Asia-Pacific region. However, due to the irrelevance to the topic of this paper, TBLT will be opted out.
This essay will critically discuss the Communicative Approach in the English classroom and how the CAPS document addresses the approach. The first paragraph discusses the meaning and reason why the Communicative Approach is necessary. Communication can be found in many different forms, as learners it is one of the most important skills that can be taught in life.The Communicative Language Theory in teaching is a methodology that is accepted worldwide. The methodology connects the theory sections with the practice in teaching a language. Theory states what language is and how a learned.
The Direct Method suggests that there should be lots of verbal communication, no translation, random and spontaneous use of the target language and there should be little time given to grammar and syntactic structures (Lestari, P. Rahmi, A. 2011) The Natural/Communicative Approach The beginning of 1960s saw yet another method which was originally the brain child of Tray Terrall and Stephen Krashen. This approach focused on three main areas; aural comprehension, early speech comprehension and speech activities. Students demonstrate comprehension in the form of speech, this is normally after the initial silent period. To enable the student to produce the target language it is of paramount importance that the Affective filter is low (Bull, W 1999) Language-body conversations ‘Total Physical Response (TPR) The foundation for language body conversations are based on a physical response or action upon the student.
Ellis (2003) considers tasks which involve unspecific language use as 'unfocused tasks' and tasks which are encouraging the possessing of specific linguistic features as 'focused tasks'. Ellis maintains applying both of the mentioned tasks is possible in TBLT courses while concerning interaction hypothesis; focused tasks have contribution to second language acquisition. Ellis (2003) entitles pedagogic tasks and real-world tasks as 'unfocused' tasks and structured-based production tasks, structured-based comprehension tasks, and consciousness-raising tasks as 'focused' tasks. He believes unlike 'exercises' which mostly deals with practicing a specific form of language, in focused tasks learners are not informed of the specific linguistic focus, therefore they are free to concentrate on meaning and choose their own resources while any attention to form will be incidental (p. 141). 2.1.2.
The central aim of the scholars who insisted on such an approach was to diminish the importance given to the mechanical and grammatical structures by emphasizing the significance of communicative purposes. In other words, according to the merits of the CLT, as mentioned among the principles of the CEFR, the students should be perceived as language users not only learners those who use the language in a communicative way. When the implications of the CLT in the unit are analysed, one of the first thing that should be paid attention to is the pair work activities used throughout the unit. The main purpose behind this is to ensure that the language users are not working alone on the activities. Rather, they are exchanging their ideas with their partners by using the target language.
Norman and Schmidt (1992) state that there are three roles for problem-based learning. The first is the acquisition of factual knowledge, the second is the mastery of general principles or concepts that can be transferred to solve similar problems, and third, the acquisition of prior examples that can be used in future problem solving situations of a similar nature. Foreign language as a school subject is skill oriented. Thus, problem solving approach applied to it implies different components than when it is applied to subjects that are knowledge oriented (e.g. history).
This importance of communicative tasks, according to (McDonough& Mackey, 2000), as a result of SLA researches that some processes that happen during conversational interaction may ease second language learning. In addition, implementing communicative tasks that focus on these processes may give learners the opportunity to focus on linguistics forms in the context of meaning (McDonough& Mackey, 2000). Reason for choosing the three principles: Writing about CLT comes from my experience of working with EFL Omani learners grades nine & one. My learners had difficulties producing language orally even though they received substantial input. Reading about CLT made me conscious of its potential for addressing the difficulty in communication that my students had and this is what led me to search about the principles that I've chosen.