PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES FOR OUTCOMES-BASED ASSESSMENT An educator should use different assessment styles and methods. Assessment should provide learners with many opportunities to show their abilities in the specific knowledge and skills they have learnt. The methods and styles of the assessment must be appropriate to the outcomes being tested. Assessment should focus on the abilities of specific skills and knowledge that need to be tested. If assessment is to be reliable it has to be planned, on-going and incorporated into teaching.
A teacher must continually make decisions and act on those decisions” (Cooper,149). Besides, it is also vital for teachers to make note if any changes are necessary for next time whenever a lesson was taught. For instance, if the lesson was successful, the teacher will be aware that he or she should keep using that strategy in the future. Another approach a teacher can assist students in the learning process is to make the content meaningful. For this to take place, the teacher should understand the central concepts, tools of inquiry and structures of the discipline he or she teaches and creates learning experiences that make these aspects of subject matter meaningful for students (INTASC Principles).
In accordance with Piaget’s theory, the learner interacts with objects and events available in the physical and social environment and therefore comprehends the objects or events using the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. The learners, therefore, construct their own conceptualizations and use them to generate solutions to problems. This theory also suggests that humans create and construct knowledge as they try to bring meaning to their experiences. In the differentiated classroom, teachers should facilitate the learning process by organizing learning activities and using variety of aid material according to the level of students’ cognitive structure to enable them to construct knowledge through their
A conceptual review of what has been understood as didactic materials is necessary because it allows rethinking common sense assumptions about the role and importance didactic materials have. In the case of traditional conceptions, teaching materials tend to be considered as instruments to access the target language. They are a means of dealing with grammar, syntax, phonetics, and cultural matters, among others. Conceiving teaching materials as instruments is an idea supported by theories related to input. "A teaching material is considered as anything which is used by teachers or learners to facilitate the learning of a language.
Students and teachers constantly consult the prescribed materials in the classroom and very often these materials act as the major source of guidance of language teaching process. These are the materials which “inform learners about the language” (Tomlinson: 2003: 2)49. In other words they act as informative text, about the planning and executing of their language instruction. These materials are informative in nature and help the instructor in providing instructions to the students. These are the teaching materials which teach features of language and language use overtly.
Explain why teachers should adopt “ differentiated instruction “ in class” The cornerstone of differentiation is active planning, the teacher plans instruction strategically to meet learners where they are and to offer multiple avenues through which they can acces, understand and apply learning. In differentiating lessons, teachers must take into account not only what they are teaching ( content) but also whom they are teaching (individual that is students). They need to know the varying readiness level , interests and learning profiles of each of their students and the design learning options to fit into these factors. Differentiated instruction means giving students choices about how to learn and how to demonstrate their learning. It is a way in which the teacher anticipates and responds to variety of student’s needs.
Then, learning itself obviously has a certain strategy. Study by Weinstein and Mayer (1986) explain that learning strategy has objective to motivate and facilitate the learner in select, acquires, organize or integrate new knowledge. Then when we talk about learning language there are some styles that used by teacher to
This term refers to a learner 's ability to apply his or her knowledge of the language to communicate effectively. One example of communicative competence is to know how to use language, in different contexts in a very practical way both in formal or informal settings. This can be achieved through the use of communication strategies specially meant for CLT and the various classroom activities that naturally induces real
Introduction According to researchers on ESL context, individual teachers bring to the class a teaching philosophy and personal principles which are widely accepted and applied or just those of their own. They serve as a basis for all teacher professional practices from planning and conducting the lesson to assessment and evaluation (Bailley, 1996; Richards, 1998, as cited in Richards, 2001). As demonstrated in the following teaching and learning philosophy, a variety of aspects are taken into account. The first consensus is that learning a language is to be able to use that language, not just to know about it. In addition to the optimization of student exposure to the authentic target language, learners should be encouraged to engage actively