Task-based language teaching can be obtained by slightly changing how original textbook materials are applied by adjusting classroom management, activity order and activity balance. Furthermore, characteristics of task-based instruction can supplement the existing textbook materials by finding more exciting starting points, extending the activities and defining the target of activities more clearly (Willis, 1996). Phases of the Task-based Framework Researchers have been suggested different sequencing frameworks for TBI (Ellis, 2003; Lee, 2000; Prabhu, 1987; Skehan, 1996; Willis, 1996). They assume three phases in common for TBI. Ellis (2003) names these phases as 'pre-task, 'during-task' and 'post-task', whereas Willis (1996) divides these phases into 'pre-task', 'task cycle' and 'language focus'.
Task-based language teaching (TBLT), the approach which Ellis describes and advocates, involves designing whole courses around tasks, and is related to a strong version of CLT. Ellis (2003) distinguishes TBLT from ‘task-supported language teaching’, which simply combines task use with traditional pedagogy, and is consistent with a weak version of CLT. TBLT focuses on the use of language and on meaningful activities using target language, for e.g., conducting an interview or visiting a doctor. Assessment is based on task outcome rather than on accuracy of language forms. 2.3.
Stations or centers might be teacher-led if new knowledge is to be given or student-led if mastery is to be obtained on the information given by the teacher. Project-based is another strategy and one of the best ways to differentiate instruction due to the students’ needs and styles are addressed. Projects internalize help and support among students beside some academic skills. Tiered Activities, on the other hand, are based on the learning tasks designed at different levels of complexity according to students’ readiness levels, i.e. to be gradually given to the students ,whenever the student finishes one stage, they transfer to the other one until the task is done, or at times keeping the learning outcomes same the learning tasks can be designed according to students’ learning preferences viz.
In this study, the instruction followed the criterial tasks of the K-12 Curriculum. The teacher was a facilitator guiding the learners to arrive at the meaning of a difficult word. While the teacher acted as a facilitator, the learners were involved in an activity of identifying the meaning of a difficult word using speed drawing and kinesics. Lastly, the learning strategies used in this study is akin to that of the K-12 Curriculum which is performance-based. Speed drawing and kinesics as strategies in improving vocabulary retention are characterized by direct participation of learners.
The main characteristics of task-based instruction are meaningfulness, interaction, cooperation, peer feedback, natural language use (Malmir et al, 2011). It emphasize on learning to communicate through interacting purposefully while engage in the activities (Nunan, 2004; Richards & Rodgers, 2001). It also provides students to expose to the real-world tasks which enable students to practice and notice the important of the language (Richards & Rodgers,
The ability to speak fluently presupposes not only knowledge of language features, but also the ability to process information and language ‘on the spot. Several issues arise for any teacher trying to incorporate principles of process writing into his or her professional practice. First, teachers need to provide time for writing in the supported learning environment of the classroom. Many students will benefit from structured tasks, which teach them strategies for planning, drafting, and revision. Many teachers would argue that setting aside the time needed for feedback, and for the revision of several drafts, is unrealistic, particularly within the constraints of school systems; and particularly where classes are large.
7 Most reading instruction in elementary and secondary school is very focused on the understanding of the text and even in the new words or vocabulary build up. From that sense, interventions are needed by the students (Burns, Hodgson, Parker, & Fremont, 2011). The success of students in any field of acquiring skills specifically in reading can be determined through students’ motivation which could possibly be obtained by the teachers’ attitude and capability in constructing a program beneficial for each student but when teachers fail to maintain good attitude towards students then low-motivated learners are expected to fail in comprehending or understanding any form of a given printed materials Nilsen (2009). Morgan & Fuchs, 2007 emphasized that teachers must look for techniques or develop strategies to help students who are at
Job specific tasks Learning by doing gives students deliberative practice opportunities to address a course’s objectives, according to Ken Koedinge (2002), professor of human-computer integration and psychology and co-coordinators of the Simon Initiative. Teachers give a task to students because it has an objective to be pursued. Teacher knows what they are doing. They give student circumstances for student to become strong in facing any problem. The subject which the students encounter in school is the way for the student to mold their individuality.
With both results from participation observation and interviews in both teaching approach, the results reflects each other and shows that Problem based learning approach are able to motivate the students towards learning ICT in class. The analysis from the results shows the way Problem Based Learning approach motivate the students in class are by relating the problem scenario of the lesson with their life experiences and knowledge, the group discussions and self- research which allow them to work independently with others with less being spoon-fed by the teacher (Bereiter and Scardamalia ,
Even in context where it is harder to see future purpose for English language communication among schoolchildren , it is often nevertheless thought to be sensible to build potential for this . A brief review of statements form syllabus specification and introduction to course books will demonstrate the extent to which communicative ability has become a goal and communicative practice has become part of classroom procedure . The implications for the communicative classroom; the communicative approach to language teaching is premised on the belief that , if the development of communicative language ability is the goal of classroom learning , then communicative practice must be part of the process . not everyone would agree with this 'product implies process ' argument .t . there are certainly successful language learner , not least among English language teacher , who have come through An English Language Training curriculum where the focus has been on a study of the formal system of English and where classroom practice has been less than interactive .