This method is only useful phenols and certain heterocyclic compounds such as pyrroles and indoles. This reaction is conducted in basic solution. Yields are generally low, seldom rising above 50%. Haller-Bauer reaction This reaction is known for the cleavage of ketones with sodium amide. The reaction is usually applied only to nonenolizable ketones, most often to ketones of the form ArCOCR3, where the products R3CCONH2 are not easily attainable by other methods.
For use as a sterilizing agent, ethylene oxide is available as an aerosol mixed with propellants of the Freon type. Ethylene oxide constitutes 11 percent of the mixture and may be discharged from the container without the risk of fire or explosion. Vitamins of the B complex and some of the amino acids may be destroyed when exposed to ethylene oxide. However, drier conditions may reduce this effect. Charles et al (1965) found that, in a dry sterilization procedure where the efficiency of the treatment was satisfactory, the effect on vitamin B content was only slight in comparison to steam
They can be used as substitutes for sugars, however are not typically as sweet. Sugar alcohols are incompletely absorbed and metabolized by the body meaning that they contribute fewer calories than sugar. And although they affect blood sugar levels, it is less so than sugars. However, due to incomplete absorption, sugar alcohols can cause flatulence and diarrhea. Foods that contain sugar alcohols can be labeled ‘sugar free’.
One of the possible reasons for the poor result could be that the techniques were basic. We used a hot water extraction, and organic solvent extraction and a rotary evaporator technique which could not have given us crude caffeine. Further purification steps needs to be conducted in order to obtain crude
The limitation with this indicator is that it is not specific in other words it’s not accurate. Electronic pH meter: It is a machine that measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. It gives a pH value up to two decimal places, which makes it an accurate method to use while finding the pH value. The only drawback with this method is that it could be expensive. Titration: Titration is another method that determines the concentration of a solution.
This might have prevented the tablet from quick over-hydration and formation of slippery and weak mucilage that are easily removable from the mucosal surface. On the other hand, XNG might have formed weaker, more easily fractured gels due to its comparatively low molecular weight in addition to very low rate of swelling, resulting in low mucoadhesive strength. Wash off test was performed for all the matrix tablet formulations of diltiazem hydrochloride and the detachment time of the formulations is shown in table 6.6.10 and shown in Fig.6.6.5. The detachment time was found to be in the range of 4.33±0.06 to 9.68±0.28 hr, suggesting that all the formulations have sufficient mucoadhesive strength to remain intact with gastric mucosa for long time to release the drug in a controlled manner.Formation of hydrogen bonds between the hydrophilic functional groups of mucoadhesive polymers and the mucus layer or the mucosal surface is a prerequisite for extensive and longer mucoadhesion. The capillary force arises when water from the space between the mucosa and the polymer was taken up by a dry system.
ABSTRACT: Pantoprazole sodium is an antiulcer drug. This compound inhibits gastric acid formation and thereby it is very efficient for the treatment of gastric and duodenum ulcers. But pantoprazole sodium is acid labile drug that will degrade in acidic environment of stomach resulting in therapeutic inefficacy. Hence it is necessary to bypass the acidic pH of the stomach which can be achieved by formulating delayed release dosage forms (single unit or multiple units) by using different enteric polymers The present study was an attempt to formulate and evaluate enteric coated tablets for pantoprazole sodium sesquihydrate. Different core tablets were prepared using different superdisintegrants (Sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium,
After extraction, the purity of the isolated products can be checked using TLC. TLC is also used to confirm the identity of the extracted crystals. The two main laboratory techniques performed during this lab, acid-base extraction and Thin Layer Chromatography, offer methods to separate and confirm the identity and purity of the separated components of the Excedrin tablet. Acid-base extraction depends on the properties of the compound you want to separate like the acidity and solubility. Solubility matters since organic compounds tend to not be soluble in aqueous solvents, but ionic salts do easily dissolve in water.
However, the influence of pentavalent ions on the properties of Ni-Zn ferrites seems to have received very little attention [3, 4]. It is desirable to bring out a systematic study of Ni-Zn ferrites substituted with pentavalent ions not only to estimate their influence on the electromagnetic properties on one hand but also to understand the methods of such changes on the other. It is proposed to investigate the effect of V2O5 addition in Ni-Zn ferrites in this