Teacher Efficacy Theory And Rotter's Social Cognitive Theory

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Teacher Efficacy was first conceived by The RAND( Research and Development ) researchers United States, with its theoretical base, grounded in Rotter’s Social Learning Theory (1966).According to them Teacher Efficacy is the extent to which Teachers believed that they could control the reinforcement of their actions, that is, whether control of reinforcement lay within them or in the environment. Student motivation and performance were assumed to be significant reinforces for teaching behaviors. Thus, Teachers with a high level of Efficacy believed that they could control, or at least strongly influence, student achievement and motivation, thus the concept of Teacher Efficacy was originated. Teacher Efficacy has been defined as "the extent to which the Teacher believes he or she has the capacity to affect student performance" (Berman, McLaughlin, Bass, Pauly, & Zellman, 1977, p. 137), or as "Teachers ' belief or conviction that they can influence how well students learn, even those who may be difficult or unmotivated" (Guskey & Passaro, 1994, p. 4).
1.2.1.2 Bandura’s social cognitive theory (1997)
While one strand of research grounded in Rotter’s Social Learning Theory developed, a second strand emerged, growing out of Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and his construct of Self-Efficacy, as initially described in his 1977 article, ‘‘Self-Efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change’’. Bandura (1997) defined perceived Self-Efficacy as ‘‘beliefs in one’s capabilities

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