This gradually builds up his / her language skills from the school level itself. The method should be reinforced by allotting more time in the time table for the students to exercise their spoken skills and overcome natural inefficiency and stage fear in learning the language skills that are most essential in speaking the target language fluently and effectively. The need to create a conducive ambience for the learning and expression of spoken skills as the focus of new English language paradigm is very much emphasized by Indira Nityanandam in her incisive analysis of class room atmosphere where the learners are reduced to passive listening, without an opportunity to activate and absorb their own language skills in the spoken
strategies that contribute to the development of the language system which the learner constructs and (which) aﬀect learning directly’’ (Rubin, 1987, p. 23). Oxford (1990) further defined language learning strategies as steps taking to facilitate the acquisition, storage, retrieval and use of information. O’Mally and Chamot (1990) studies viewed learning strategies as “the special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn or retain new information” (p. 1). The term ‘strategy’ in the context of language learning refers to a specific type of action on behavior reported to by a language learner in order to improve performance in both using an learning a language (Naiman , Frolich, Stem & Todesco 1978; Wenden & Rubin 1987; Oxford 1990). Good and successful learners can improve their learning process by exploiting the strategies and make the less effective students follow the same
Language teaching is determined by factors such as society, education, instruction and individuals. These factors outline the policies, and goals that have been determined for foreign languages at the national level; the delivery system in terms of objectives to reach these goals; syllabuses and teaching procedures; and the learning outcomes. These factors include the role of English in the society, therefore the need of individuals to learn English to function well academically speaking, to function well in real life situations or in occupational settings. Being aware of this need, the government needs to develop the type of curriculum and syllabus; establish the amount of time devoted to English instructions; the materials to be used; and
Thus, the ability in speaking skill is a crucial and important part of second language learning and teaching process. The mastery of speaking skill in the English language is a priority for many second language or foreign language students. Even though periods of focusing on language form and enhance vocabulary are important in English language learning, but developing the students’ ability to really communicate with English in the classroom are the main goal of an English language teaching. At the end of the study, the students should be able to communicate effectively in English for study, work, and leisure outside the classroom. Therefore, it is essential that English teachers pay great attention in teaching speaking to the students.
Task-based language teaching can be obtained by slightly changing how original textbook materials are applied by adjusting classroom management, activity order and activity balance. Furthermore, characteristics of task-based instruction can supplement the existing textbook materials by finding more exciting starting points, extending the activities and defining the target of activities more clearly (Willis, 1996). Phases of the Task-based Framework Researchers have been suggested different sequencing frameworks for TBI (Ellis, 2003; Lee, 2000; Prabhu, 1987; Skehan, 1996; Willis, 1996). They assume three phases in common for TBI. Ellis (2003) names these phases as 'pre-task, 'during-task' and 'post-task', whereas Willis (1996) divides these phases into 'pre-task', 'task cycle' and 'language focus'.
The findings of research indicate that more positive the teacher attitude towards task-based teaching the more likely he/she is to take time to prepare material for task-based teaching or to create classroom time for carrying out activities. This research used detail qualitative case study and explore six issues which was found by teachers in the implementation of communicative tasks in their
In so doing, students’ learning experiences will be promoted and they will learn elements of language through the channel that best fits their learning preferences. Research shows that if teachers can give students instructions relevant to their learning styles, the performances are usually better (Dunn and Price, 1979; Oxford and Ehrman, 1993). Whenever the learners’ learning differences are fitted innately with the instructional procedure, their enthusiasm, performances, and achievement will be increased (Brown , 2007). From the research to date, it is clear that all language learners use language-learning strategies in some ways; however, the frequency and
Each method has strengths and weakness, as the methods aims are also different. Further, the importance of teaching language is to know how to respect the fact that everyone has different learning styles and individual personalities, and different goals for
1. Introduction Nowadays Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) plays a significant role in many countries around the world. Teaching a language is a complicated process since every language consists of four main skills, including reading, writing, speaking and listening, and some sub-skills, including grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. One essential skill is reading, and it has always been taken into account as one of the most influential skills which is now even more important than before due to the large amount of information in every specific area of study. By knowing the importance of reading, a question may arise: How can teachers improve the language learners’ reading skill?