This sub-section tried to review the nature of curriculum, its implementation, and then the effect on student teachers reflective learning practices. Reflective teacher education naturally follows the innovative and reflective paradigm of teacher education, which is theorized and grounded from the cognitive and constructive learning theories and principles (Huizen, et al). Therefore, it gives more attention in enhancing student teachers’ self learning, rather than receiving information as it is (Choy, 2012; Daudelin, 1996) from sources that they assumed as authoritative by practicing reflection over the theoretical and practical experiences while teacher education curricula are delivered. Such intentions at the teacher education are best served
The two different theories are Fred Jones and Jacob Kounin. Kounin states his sentiment insufficiency in attempting to help educators, particularly starting ones, with issues of significance to them. Control is one issue regularly verbalized by instructors. However Jones says that the educator must succeed in overseeing order and direction. He likewise expresses that amid the procedure of development and change, preparing is the simple piece of viable expert advancement.
According to Patterson, Collins and Abbott (2004), resilient teachers consider their professional development as a priority. These teachers seem to prefer an active approach to resolve problems. Moreover, Howard and Johnson (2004) highlighted that some teachers involved in their study admitted that they had developed survival skills by reflecting on their practice when things were going wrong. Teachers who participated in Huisman et al’s study (2010) also considered both formal and informal professional development opportunities as a priority. As mentioned earlier in this paper, societal developments in several domains confront schools and teachers nowadays with more challenges of different kinds (Elchardus, 1994; Hargreaves, 1994b).
The failure to reflect may result in a failure to improve (Paterson & Chapman, 2013). • Reflective teaching enables teachers to analyze, discuss, evaluate and change their own practice, adopting an analytical approach towards teaching. • Fosters teachers’ appreciation of the social and political contexts in which they work, helping teachers to recognize that teaching is socially and politically situated and that the teacher’s task involves an appreciation and analysis of that context; • Enables teachers to appraise the moral and ethical issues implicit in classroom practices, including the critical examination of their own beliefs about good
So, a well educated teacher will be able to change a bad method and a bad material to be the good one. In this case, one of the purposes of this study is trying to identify the difficulties faced by teacher in implementing project-based learning. Therefore, it is essential to know the teacher difficulties in teaching and learning by using project-based learning. There are several common difficulties in implementing PjBL in teaching and learning process. Marx et al.
Lastly, I will bring attention to the importance of searching for constant effectiveness in the classroom so that teachers are more successful at teaching. Some people believe that teachers are born and not made. Harmer (2007, pp. 23-24) states that even though some teachers might not have a unique gift, they are still effective. I concur with this idea, having a special talent or gift, some call it a vocation, may be important when deciding to become a teacher, but not the most decisive.
The division of behaviors can be done with differently such as positive behavior and negative behaviors, verbal behavior and nonverbal behavior and so on. However, there are different behaviors, I was giving more focus to study on nonverbal behaviors which represent the teacher's activities, techniques, and actions towards the students in teaching and learning process. I do believe that nonverbal behaviors of teachers are shown actions towards their students through verbal and nonverbal communication such as eye contact, gesture, body language, tone, postures, facial expressions etc. Argyle (1984, as cited in Huang, 2011) opined that nonverbal communication is body language that include different aspects of appearance, nonverbal vocalizations and bodily movements. I do
2.2 Teacher resilience A good number of studies has shown that facing various challenges for teachers in different years of their teaching is inevitable. This issue become important when teaches lack the ability of managing these difficulties which may result in burnout and attrition. To be on the positive side, equipping teachers with qualities that prevent them from frustration and make them to thrive than just survive was an ongoing concern for teacher educators and policy makers. Resilience, as a specific strategy that individuals usually apply when they face a kind of adverse situation (Castro, et al., 2010), has been attracted a lot of attention among researchers. Resilience as a developmental attribute seems necessary for teachers to
However, teachers always mistakenly think they are the teacher but forget they can also be the learners. Always be humble and ask questions and learn from the other experienced teachers is also a good way to exchange information. Especially for technology, there are many more new technologies entering into the education field. Teachers cannot use the same teaching ways over and over, but to educate themselves to improve their teaching. Also, new knowledge is coming out every day.