Some scholars working in the field found no significant relationship between demographic factors like age or experience and the level of teaching stress experienced by instructors. For instance, Kyriacou and Sutcliffe (1979) in a study of 218 teachers from mixed comprehensive schools in England found no significant correlation between level of stress and age, length of experience and position held in school. Nevertheless, many others (Ameen, Guffey and Jackson 2010; Klassen and Chiu 2010; Powell and Ferraro 1960) argue that personal and environmental factors contribute to the level of stress perceived by teachers. For example, married teachers face huge amounts of responsibility and take the burden of keeping a balance between their job and family affairs. The situation becomes even tenser when children are involved, especially the ones who are dependent on parental resources like financial and emotional care.
Hence, stress comes when the body tries to respond to such threats. However, causes of stress are either due to good or bad experience. In addition, different studies show that stress can either be healthy or unhealthy to an individual depending on its type. Causes of Stress Notably, people of all ages experience stress. That is school children, working adults and the elderly as well.
Career choices, on the other hand, are catered in vocational counselling or guidance and career counselling. Another form of counselling is the personal/social. It deals with emotional distress and behavioural difficulties which would usually arise when an individual struggles to deal with changes and developments. It is inevitable that any aspect of development needs adjustment problem but at times this may lead to some bigger challenges that need immediate intervention of some counsellors. Some of these challenges are anxiety over career choices, interpersonal conflicts which led to unmanageable anger, insecurities, depression, guilt and remorse, and grief.
Moreover, occupational stress has been directly related to psychological and emotional disorders, such as depression and anxiety (Health and Safety Executive, 2007b), especially within caring professions like nursing and social work (Jones, Huxtable & Hodgson, 2016). Stress in social work students. For social work students, professional education and training, which combine both academic and professional requirements, may evoke higher level of pressure than ‘traditional’ academic programs (Dziegliewski et al., 2004). On the other hand, as cultural differences may give rise to clashes in their expectations, oversea students must need more time and energy for greater adjustments and adaptation (Akgun & Ciarrochi, 2003). Perceived stress can exaggerate along with lack of the necessary language
School frequently become the source of stress for many people, especially student which is called the academic stress. The accademic stress is a stress that is come from school environment and the impact is just on the student. It is commonly become the reason why many students have a academic problem and poor academic grade. “Stressors are demands made by the internal or external environment that upset balance, thus affecting physical and psychological well-being and requiring action to
Fear of negative evaluation: defined by Horwitz and Young as the fear and worry of the individual about what others think of him and misjudge his behavior .Students fear of negative evaluation in any classroom situation where they are evaluated by the teacher. Anxious students already have some expectations that their peers will evaluate them negatively so they become sensitive in any evaluative situation. Although the learning process requires a regular evaluation, it resembles to test anxiety because it’s not limited to specific situation. Test anxiety can manifest also in social cases as an interview for a job, in the same context MacIntyre and Gardner (1991) suggested that fear of negative evaluation is related to communicative apprehension because when students are not sure of what they will say by worrying about making mistakes in front of their peers as consequence they don’t participate
This was found when researching on Ann Birchanan, JoAnne Ten Brinkle, 1997 "Factors that may come as a result of parental background, such as poverty and parenting difficulties." Ann Burchanan, JoAnn Ten Brinke accessed on 23/01/18 When children and young people turn into adults within their later life it is known that the background of their family has a long term effect upon them. "Different parental backgrounds have been shown to have long-term effects for some children in adult life." Ann Burchanan, JoAnn Ten Brink, 1997 accessed on 23/01/18. It is also known that when families go though a situation which causes a distraction it causes both children and young people to become effected within their later lives.
The ageing workforce employee although they have more experience but as they grow older their performance at work become slower compared to the younger employees. This is a concerning issue especially to a rapid development organization as they need their employees to always be on standby mode and adaptability to various kind of situations and by having high percentage of older employees in an organization, it can definitely affect
As meanwhile, organisational change also affected by the psychological problem. The perception of employees toward the job is difference. Most of the old generation staff may feel that is a threat to them but for young staff is a challenge. Moreover, the risk of change management is quite high. For example, Emily Lawson and Colin Price listed out that manager must influence the mind-set of the employees to ensure they accept the change.
This means they are less likely to leave. It will raise moral. It will also save time by being able to put them into the role. Another advantage is going to be that they already have a relationship built this could help and make it worse because if they get along with people they will listen to the manager. If problems are already there it could bigger problems with co-workers.