Reading involves garnering knowledge, information and meaning from any literary text. Readers are encouraged to be active in constructing meaning while reading text. Thus, after reading has taken place, readers should have a clear understanding of what has been written and they will then be able to transfer information they need. However, many students still have challenges with comprehension; especially when they have to comprehend words, sentences or an entire text. If people do not understand what they read, it becomes a frustrating, pointless exercise in word calling.
Communication requires integration of all language skills: speaking, listening, reading and writing, of which listening is of primary importance as it is one of the fundamental skills in language acquisition. It 's no wonder that in recent years the language teaching profession has placed a concentrated emphasis on listening, as it is considered to be a major component in language learning and teaching. Naturally, there are obstacles that make listening, which is a general purpose in most learning situations, difficult, as it is more than merely hearing words. As G.Buck states, "listening is a complex process in which the listener takes the incoming data, an acoustic signal, and interprets it based on a wide variety of linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge", i.e. listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are saying /Buck, 2001: 10/.
Reading and listening are considered receptive skills whereas speaking and writing are known as productive skills. (Javed, Juan& Nazli:2013,p.130) Writing is one of the basic EFL skills. Banat(2007) pointed out that this skill is invaluable for helping students communicate and understand how the parts of language go together, adding that writing is one of the four major language skills that need to be mastered by language learners. Abu Rass(2001) stressed that writing is a difficult skill for native and nonnative speakers alike, for writers should balance multiple issues such as content, organization, purpose, audience, vocabulary, punctuation, spelling, and mechanics. Writing is especially difficult for nonnative speakers because they are expected to create written products that demonstrate mastery of all the aforementioned issues in a new language.
As many language linguists believe practice is crucial to make progress. Every language skill in general needs time-consuming. According to Harmer (2007), practice frequently is a key to boost listening ability. In our folk, people say that: “study must be accompanied with practice”. Thus, students need to listen as much as possible since the more they listen, the better they are.
Accordingly, Knapp and Watkins (2005, p. 14) state that “Learning to write is a difficult and complex series of processes that require a range of explicit teaching methodologies throughout all the stages of learning”. In addition, Richards and Renandya (2000, p. 303) described that writing is the most difficult skill for the second learners to master. In other words, writing for the second language learners are difficult which most of them have no basic skill about English. Based on these explanations, teaching writing to the students is more
The Importance of Teacher feedback in Students’ Writing Improvement Writing is an important skill contributing to the student’s language learning. However, learning how to write is not easy because writing is considered the most difficult skill to acquire. According to Zacharia (2005), it requires having a certain amount of L2 background knowledge about rhetorical organization, appropriate language use or specific lexicon with which they want to communicate their ideas. Therefore, the teachers have to make an effort to help students enhance their writing skill and increase their motivation to accomplish the writing task. One of the most useful techniques to help student develop writing skill is giving feedback.
In addition to proficiency in spoken skills, sound knowledge of life skills is equally important. One aspect often ignored in the current scenario is that skills of different types for professional development are acquired through literature. It all depends on the teacher to make the class innovative while using literature as a source to develop language skills. Language is a dynamic process with recurrent changes. What is useful and helpful today may become obsolete in the future.
General Introduction Among the most important skills that EFL students need to develop is speaking since it stands as a primary concern for most of them. With a growing need for more effective, successful and active ways of foreign language learning. Innovation in the language field has been stimulated by a special concern for learning through active and collaborative setting. The predominant view is that language is best learned when students are interacting with each other in groups-completing a task or learning a content or resolving real life issues - where their attention is not directed toward the language itself, except when a focus on language forms is necessary. Many researchers have called into question the importance of investigating
When teaching a foreign language, a teacher usually encounters many problems and difficulties, but when we find ourselves in the position of teaching English as a second or a foreign language, one of the most problematic skills we must face is speaking. Teaching speaking can become a very complex task and sets out many dilemmas like whether to teach or not to teach pronunciation to English learners. First of all, we should take into account that pronunciation is a fundamental aspect in an effective oral production of English and it is essential for an effective communication, which is the final goal while teaching and learning a language. As Peter Watkins writes in Learning to teach English, “…poor pronunciation can impede communication very quickly” (50). Thus, the dilemma seems to be very clear; the question is not whether to teach pronunciation, but rather how to teach it.
Teachers ' Assessment of Written Work at School Writing is a necessary skill when learning a second language as it is a highly valuable tool for communication, learning and self-expression. Apart from that, it may be fundamental for engaging in professional and social activities. People who have competent writing skills may be at an advantage to comply with the demands from present-day society and achieve accessing to better education or valuable jobs. As the school functions as a bridge between children life and adult life, it may be recommendable that students develop strong writing skills at this stage. However, this skill might be considered the most complex to acquire and teachers play a key role in guiding students through this process.