Prepositions are considered to be tricky and challenging not only for the non –native speakers but also to the language teachers. Therefore they are normally avoided to be discussed in classrooms. The learners rely on the literal connotations rather understanding the underlying logic of the prepositions English language offers (Sotiloye 2015). Tyler in his book ‘Cognitive Linguistic and Second Language Learning’ has presented an innovative and empirical research to understand the spirit of English prepositions. He explains that prepositions describe relationship between two objects, in which one is Focus element and the other is Grounding element.
Since the number of syllables is different, the rhythm is different. Typically, small words and affixes are difficult to hear in spoken English, because of the systematic use of contrastive highlighting, which is essential to the English stress and emphasis system. For these reasons, small words are often missing from the student’s speech, indicating that they may not be hearing them well. Moreover, understanding of English rhythm involves more than the ability to identify and count syllables. English rhythm helps to produce and hear the word stress
When teaching a foreign language, a teacher usually encounters many problems and difficulties, but when we find ourselves in the position of teaching English as a second or a foreign language, one of the most problematic skills we must face is speaking. Teaching speaking can become a very complex task and sets out many dilemmas like whether to teach or not to teach pronunciation to English learners. First of all, we should take into account that pronunciation is a fundamental aspect in an effective oral production of English and it is essential for an effective communication, which is the final goal while teaching and learning a language. As Peter Watkins writes in Learning to teach English, “…poor pronunciation can impede communication very quickly” (50). Thus, the dilemma seems to be very clear; the question is not whether to teach pronunciation, but rather how to teach it.
Introduction: The acquisition of language is different from language learning which is used with reference to a second language which a person learns purposefully; particularly in formal settings like school etc. The researchers like Littlefair (1991), Dockrell and Messer (1988), and Widdowson, (1978) found a demarcation line between language acquisition and language learning and used the expression of first language acquisition in contrast with second language learning, but many researchers and theorists don’t distinguish between the two. Farzan(2000) for instance, treated language acquisition as a purely stylistic alternate to language learning. The four main skills of the English language are reading, listening, speaking, and writing. A person needs a mastery of various elements to use the language to reflect thoughts, desires, intentions , feeling and information in a written form (Pamela, 1991).The four basic English language skills are divided into two categories such as receptive skills and productive skills.
Often students with knowledge of English meet with a particular difficulty in their first contact with native speakers. The problem appears not in language, but in speech and vocabulary. Apart from the quality of American vocabulary, there is a set of basic differences between British and American vocabulary. Language is an important aspect of human development, so it is not surprising that different groups of people who speak
In order to move into a global picture, one needs to learn the language. It is not a luxury anymore to have English as your repertoire but it is necessity in this era we are living in. However, the teachers and the learners of English in Malaysia where the students are not native speakers of English faced many obstacles in their teaching-learning process. The educators must possess an essential skills to be able to teach the students to express themselves using English in class as well as real life contexts. When we talk about teaching English, there are many elements and essentials that can be ventured and one of them is using literature to teach English Language.
Pinter (2006) in Astuti Pratiwi stated that vocabulary as one of the main components should be taught since the beginning level (young learners.) Meanwhile, the main condition faced by elementary school students in learning English is the lack of vocabulary itself. Elementary school students do not have a lot of English vocabulary. In other words, they lack vocabularies and affect their own understanding. Syafei and Sari (2013:128) also said there are several factors that influence students understanding of English vocabulary such as the lack of students’ knowledge, the low quality of student’s assignments, inappropriate technique, and approaches used by the teacher in the learning
Introduction There are several difficulties that Arabic students are facing while they are learning the English language. Accordingly, these issues hamper their capabilities of enriching their communication skills with English as the primary medium. For instance, the leaners of English as a foreign language (EFL) struggle to enunciate some English words. This is due to the fact that the native language where a person is accustomed to plays a key factor in producing sounds in the English language. To clarify, the phonemic segments in the English language is more diverse, thus, a handful of them do not exists in the Arab language.
They have to do a lot more writing practice themselves thereby improving their writing skills. For example, even to write a simple leave letter to the class teacher, they have to know the rule of sentence formation, the rules governing words. Nonetheless, writing demands a lot of mental effort. A student may be an effective English speaker, but he needs to learn how to convert his knowledge of grammatical concepts from spoken to written language, and this can only be done through constant writing practice under a teacher’s guidance. According to The Silken Knot, The standards of English for schools in Bhutan states that “our students are exposed to evaluate how author achieve effects by the use of linguistic, structural and presentation view at level VIII” (p.39) .Whatever little grammar Bhutanese students learn at the level mentioned is already learnt at primary level by the students in the west.
The result is that English spelling patterns vary considerably in the degree to which they follow rules. For example, the letters ee almost always represent /i□/but the sound can also be represented by the letters I and y. Similarly , the letter cluster ought represents /□,f / as in enough , / o□/ as in though , / u □ / as in through, □ f / as in cough , / a □ as in bough , /□□/ as in bought , and / □ p / as in hiccough , while in slough and ought , the pronunciation varies