The grammar debate has been around for decades. In the article of ‘Enhancing Competency in English’, Shah has explained about the advantages and disadvantages of both covert approach and overt approach in a very precise and thorough way. On the other hand, Wilson, in ‘Testing the Covert Method of Grammar Teaching’, advocated the usage of covert approach in teaching grammar by conducting a survey on learners’ interest. In ‘To Grammar or Not to Grammar’, Weaver, McNally and Moerman have discussed about the methods and stages in implementing the application of approaches. In addition, the article of ‘Teaching Grammar in Context’ by Mart advocated the notion of using context-based grammar in teaching grammar effectively.
The former seeks not to distract the learner from the message and meaning, and therefore offers corrective recasts or asks clariﬁcation questions. The latter allows for the metalinguistic aspect to come to the foreground. Most SLA theorists nowadays agree that noticing is a crucial event in language error correction and learning (Schmidt, 2001). To James (1998), noticing
Grammar teaching is of utmost importance in schools and can be done efficiently by adapting the approaches already listed in the CAPS document through creativity and innovation from the teacher’s side. According to Krahnke (cited by Terrell, 1991), “grammar has a newly defined but useful role to play in language teaching” and I fully agree. After the traditional method of grammar teaching proved to be ineffective and now natural acquisition proving the same, we as teachers have the responsibility and the new knowledge to employing grammar in its new role and providing the learners with the ability to be competent in every aspect of
Word power facilitates fluent speaking and effective writing. It substantiates both : learners’ acquisition of knowledge and production of knowledge. It enriches learners' integrated language skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing. Among the early studies of vocabulary acquisition in the first language (e.g., Boettcher, 1980; Carey, 1982; Craik, 1975), the study by Fang et al (1985) is particularly significant. In the course of their research they developed a methodology for measuring small gains in vocabulary knowledge.
Views of Curriculum in Foreign Language Teaching (FLT). According to Bellalem (2008), curriculum in FLT is pondered over as continuum whose ends represent to distinct views: (1) the transmissionist view and (2) the socio-constructivist view. 4.5.1. Transmissionist curriculum. As the name indicates, the essence of this view is the explicit transmission of syllabi and language skills.
This approach to language teaching according to David Nunan is characterized by the following features: 1. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. 2. To introduction of authentic texts into learning situation. 3.
Through design of communicative tasks in speaking classes, fluency can be achieved, and accuracy can be promoted through these pedagogic tasks (Brumfit, 1984). The British Council reports the following advantages of TBL Task-based learning: Unlike a PPP approach, the students are free of language control. In all three stages they must use all their language resources rather than just practicing one pre-selected item. • A natural context is developed from the students' experiences with the language that is personalised and relevant to them. With PPP it is necessary to create contexts in which to present the language and sometimes they can be very unnatural.
There are two types of syllabus synthetic syllabi and analytic syllabi. As, Synthetic syllabi contains linguistic units: grammar structures, vocabulary items, functions while the analytic syllabi are organised in terms of the purposes for which people are learning language and the kinds of language performance that are basically important to meet those purposes (Wilkins 1976: 13). According to the above definition, task-based syllabus fails in to the category of an analytic syllabus. This type of syllabus is meaningful and communicative in nature also, have a clear outcome so that the teacher and students recognise whether the communication has been successful or not. As Candline and Murphy note: “The central purpose we are concerned with is
CoBI is related to Krashen’s “Monitor Model”. Krashen (1982) emphasized ways of decreasing learner anxiety, such as providing interesting texts as well as meaningful activities, which were comprehensible to learners, and CoBI had the following essential features: “learning a language through academic content, engaging in activities, developing proficiency in academic discourse and fostering the development of effective learning strategies” (Crandall, 1999). Content-Based Instruction is based on three main theories of language and four teaching models. Three main theories of language are: “language is text and discourse-based,” “language use draws on integrated skills,” and “language is purposeful” (Crandall, 1999). Four teaching models are