Hind brain (Rhombincephalan) the hind brain contain the brain stem and the medulla oblongata (Myelencephalon) form by the anterior thickening of basal plate and posterior alar plate separated by sulcus in the fourth ventricle. The hind brain continues to form the spinal cord. As like cerebrum, cerebellum has fissured mass in the posterior cranial fossa attached with brain stem by three pairs of peduncles. From the base of the brain stem the 12 pairs of cranial nerves are arising. The motor nuclei of the IX, X, XI and XII cranial nerves line in the fourth ventricle is formed by the basal plate neurons.
It is the center for the eyes and ears and reticular formation is the main key here. The last section is the forebrain which contains many structures including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and the cortex. It is responsible for more complicated ordeals that need the brain. The forebrain’s largest structure is the cerebral cortex and it is responsible for sensory functions, cognitive functions, motor functions, conscious experiences, voluntary actions, language, and intelligence. It is what you see on the outside of the brain and its actually very thin and wrinkly.
The cognitive level of analysis aims to study how the inner processes of the mind processes information gained, and how they are interpreted and applied into the real world. Within this level of analysis, it was found that the cognitive and biological factors of our mind influence how we feel, or in other words, our emotions. Emotion can be defined as the body’s response to any specific situation. As all human beings can express how they feel through facial expressions, this suggests that emotions are biological rather than cognitive. However, emotions can be dependent on both the cognitive and biological factors of our body.
Our nervous system exploy this property for the computational purpose , and can turn this synaps to such means as phosphorylation of proteins involved . HOMOTROPIC MODULATION : It is the Modulation of presynaptic neuron by its own neurotransmitters . It is a form of autocrine signaling . this signaling includes usually the size ,numbers and the replenishment rate of the vesicles . it is often inhibitory with the effect of presynaptic inhibition ,making neurotransmitters self regulating .
Their journey is comprised of being transmitted through the spinal cord, past the medulla where they cross, through the thalamus, and finally to the parietal lobes, specifically the postcentral gyrus. Here, in the postcentral gyrus, the somatosensory cortex is located. Divided into primary and secondary, the somatosensory cortex houses neuron designated to specific locations of the body that they are responsible for detecting sensations
The endocrine system is such an important system to the body because it functions the bodies use of hormones. The body uses many different hormones and the endocrine system regulates these. When the glands of the endocrine system secrete the hormones, the hormones are put into the bloodstream to be sent to the different parts of the body. The glands that comprise the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the pineal gland which are all located in the brain, the thyroid, parathyroid, and thymus which are located in the throat, the adrenals and pancreas which are located in the body’s midsection, and the ovaries (female) and testes (male) which are located in the pelvic region. The system is so important because it regulates the body’s metabolism, growth and sexual development, digestion, heart rate, and many of the other body functions regulated by hormones.
INTRODUCTION Anatomy and Physiology of Angiocentic Glioma The most complex part of the body is the brain. It controls muscles movement, behavior, senses and all other functions of the body. The gray matter or cerebral cortex in the brain is the place where all the information is processed. Meanwhile, the cerebral lobe is the main source of intellectual activities. The nerve fibers in the two hemisphere of the cerebral lobe cross over and causing the right side of the cerebrum to control left side of the body and left side of the cerebrum to control right side of the body.
To better understand Biopsychology, one has to learn about the three most crucial parts, which are the brain, neurotransmitters, and the nervous system. The brain is in-charge for the cognition, senses, motor abilities, and feelings through its’ four lobes of the
The hypothalamus communicates to each lobe differently. The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract system is the specific way the hypothalamus communicates with the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It is a nervous system connection with direct connecting neurons. The neurons are located in the hypothalamus and then axons extend down to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The neurons produce hormones that slide down the axons and end up in the posterior lobe.
For example, higher levels of testosterone lead to aggressive behavior in males. The chapter summarizes that sex differences in the brain structure and function has a close association to the psychological characteristics, such as sexual orientation. Social experience of humans influences hormones to a great extent. The relation between hormones and sex differences possesses both clinical and social implications. According to medicine, humans with ambiguous genitalia fall under the female sex as it is easier to create female genitalia when compared to male genitalia.
Scents, sounds, images, and physical sensations from your environment are taken in and processed in the thalamus. The thalamus is the area of the brain that is responsible for taking all of your sensory responses and blending them together into coherent, logical experiences. Next, these sensations travel to two directions to an area of your brain called the amygdala, on to your unconscious mind, up to your frontal lobe, and finally, it reaches your conscious awareness. The amygdala job is to determine if incoming information is necessary for survival. In cases when processing in the thalamus breaks down sensory responses are converted into isolated codes in your brain, dissociated fragments, and disintegrated memory processing happens.
What parts of the brain are involved in reading? How does this differ depending on what kind of writing system is being read? The function of the temporal lobe is to heighten phonological alertness and decipher sounds. The frontal lobe, on the other hand, deals with verbal production, reading confidence, grammatical usage and understanding. While all reading uses some parts of the lobes, the logosyllabary reading brain uses the frontal areas, auditory, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, the visual areas, both left and right and area 37.