However, if God can deceive us of our clear and distinct perceptions, perhaps even the thought can be cast back into doubt. The validity of Descartes’ model of knowledge is further questioned when Descartes seem to use God’s existence to escape this flaw in logic. Descartes wants to prove that God exist by claiming it as a clear and distinct perception. However, in order to proof that he has to rely on his clear and distinct perception which is confirmed by God. The proof is known as the "Cartesian Circle."
Descartes’ version of the ontological argument offers a logical conclusion for the existence of God. As is consistent among all versions of the ontological arguments, a series of premises are offered, that once excepted naturally draw the conclusion that God exists. Descartes argument builds off of the argument originally presented by Anselm 500 years prior to Descartes account. Arguably, Descartes strengthened the argument through adapting it to his Cartesian philosophy. Although, improvements may have been made, Descartes’ argument suffers from the same fallacious reasoning present in Anselm’s argument.
Phenomenology of Religion Discuss the following from Mircea Eliade as representative of phenomenological method: The historian of religions uses an empirical method of approach. He is concerned with religio-historical facts which he seeks to understand and to make intelligible to others. He is attracted to both the meaning of religious phenomenon and to its history; he tries to do justice to both and not to sacrifice either one of them. (Eliade 1959, 88) Does Wilfred Cantwell Smith contribute something different to the phenomenological method? If so, what?
Response to Objections Even if one resonate with Swinburne in his concept of a trinune God, some questions needs to be clarified such as whether the perfection of the divine beings requires dependence (even among themselves), the necessity of being loved for the divine persons, the difference between the Father’s creation of the Son (admitting the inevitable existence of the Son) and the creatures, the justification for the use of the term «create» to denote the existence of the Son and the Holy Spirit, the causal dependence relations among the divine persons. The responses to these questions are presented with the help of objections from the various scholars and at the end the necessary modifications are presented. Since Swinburne’s concept of a triune God has gone through a process of further modifications and clarifications, the latest versions are always considered for study. Thus for example, Swinburne is more careful in The Christian God than in «Could there be More than One God» to use the term ‹God› as such only when refers the Trinity and not to the divine persons individually. 4.1.1.
In a sense, one could say that these three disciplines were intertwined in his work. By studying the loftier aspects of the human experience, Pascal was able to bring together probability theory and his worries about the existence of God. As such, his notorious wager was a turning point in philosophy, as it enmeshed infinity, probability, utility and God, so as to provide a rational perspective and justification for the belief in God. Therefore, it is important to study Pascal’s thinking integrally, bringing together his
If humans are projecting their own natures onto the idea of God, what follows is that when we understand religion we are not coming to knowledge of God, but rather of ourselves. Feuerbach says this quite explicitly: "Consciousness of God is self-consciousness, knowledge of God is self-knowledge." What Feuerbach is getting at is that the idea of God is reducible to humankind, it is in essence anthropology. One leading scholar on Feuerbach, Eugene Kamenka, notes this reduction: "Feuerbach presents each of these reductions so forcefully, with so much rhetoric, that he appears to regard each of them as the true essence in terms of which the whole of religion should be explained." If religion is, strictly speaking, anthropology then we must, if we are religious persons, grow up and realize that God and man are identical.
The cosmological argument consists of several arguments that start with the fact that the universe exists and, using inductive reasoning, works down to a conclusion as to how and why the universe exists. The cosmological argument is a posteriori so it uses empirical evidence from the known world to support its conclusion. The kalam cosmological argument, which has its roots in Islam and was revived by contemporary philosopher William Lane Craig, and the first three of St Thomas Aquinas’ five ways are arguments that attempt to prove the existence of God by inferring ‘facts’ concerning causation, motion, contingency and Aquinas’ first way is known as the ‘unmoved mover’, Aquinas observed that everything in the universe is in motion (in the state
Introduction Many arguments or testimonies for the Existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers. These arguments have an epistemological dimension and an ontological dimension. The watchmaker argument states that we know life must have been created as it is complex, just as a watch is complex, it draws that watches are created by intelligent life, so, therefore, life must have created by an intelligent being. This argument has many flaws, many questions still yet to have a sound answer, the soundness of this argument, or better fit, analogy, will be discussed throughout this essay. This writing will start by outlining in the first part the origin of the theory/analogy, the in the second part the flaws surrounding the theory, then finally in the third part, the contradictions with other theories such as the one proposed by Charles Darwin.
Hence, in this case regarding the existence of God, I would agree with Pascal that when it comes to things that which we do not have certainty such as the existence of God who as Pascal said “infinitely incomprehensible” the most reasonable thing to do therefore is to believe since in believing there would be more
“I think, Therefore I am” This quote by Descartes prove that the person exists by his ability of thinking.  Descartes prove the existing of human being through doubting and thinking and he explains his claim by stating that when the person doubt his existence or think about his existence then he exists.  Moreover, Descartes imposes an ontological argument to prove gods existence which states that: god is a perfect being and since it is more perfect to exist than not this implies that god exists.  He also introduce another more complex argument for god existence which differ between two types of reality. Formal reality is the reality that anything has in feature of existing and it comes with three types: finite, infinite, and mode.
One of the many famous arguments proving God’s existence by a seventeenth-century famed philosopher Anselm. Anselm’s reasoning was that, if a being existed only in the mind but not in reality, then a greater being was conceivable (a being which exists both in the mind and in reality). Since God is an infinitely great being, therefore, God must exist. Anselm logically proved that God existed by our understanding aside from reality and our understanding combined with reality. Another argument is the cosmological arguments.
The watch, much like the universe, behaves in a set order with "laws" set forth. Just how, for example, the laws of motion have set rules for the foundation for classical mechanics, the watch/universe has order to how things work. Although each watch may be of different shape or size, the insides are very much the same. When Paley discusses the mechanics of the watch, being that he lived in the era of the pocket watch and not today 's digital watches, he describes how every single wheel and pulley equably make their way to gracefully change each hand from one minute to the next. This is Paley 's way of describing every living thing and how the universe makes remarkable adaptations changing from one minute to the next.
An Ontological argument is an argument that concludes with accepting the existence of God, from evidence, which is supposed to originate from a source, other than, that of your senses or observation of the world. In other words you come to the conclusion from reason alone. They are formed from nothing but analytical, and necessary premises, to arrive at the conclusion that God exists. A cosmological argument uses a general outline of arguments that makes a conclusion from clear obvious facts about the world, to the existence of an all-knowing being, that is God. Among these original facts, are certain beings, or events in the world that are causally dependent or reliant on the premise, that the universe is depending in that it could have been other than what it is, or why there is something rather than nothing.