The concentration of the chloride in sweat is therefore elevated in people with cystic fibrosis .The concentration of the sodium in sweat is also elevated in cystic fibrosis .Unlike CFTR chloride channels ,sodium channels behave perfectly, normally in cystic fibrosis . However in order for the secretion to be electrically neutral, sodium caption positively charged remain in the sweat along with negatively charged chloride anions .In this way the chloride anions are said to trap the sodium captions. Again when the CFTR is defective, epithelial cells can’t regulate the way that chloride (part of the salt called sodium chloride) passes across cell membranes. This disrupts the important balance of the salt and water needed to maintain a normal thin coating of the
Throughout the experiment, there was a struggle to keep the heat stable which led to inaccurate data. Additionally, while changing the receiver from cyclohexane to toluene there was a loss of distillate which also led to the errors observed in the data. Furthermore, if more data were collected for each compound it would be a better representation of the experiment's results. If these errors were avoided, then the experiment would be more efficient in distilling the two compounds from each other and the plateau would be as sharp as figure 6 in the lab
This happens because enzymes lower the activation energy, as they provide an alternative reaction pathway. The decrease in the energy level aids in making the process happen faster (Jae In Lee, 2011) A catalase is an enzyme, which is found in all living organisms. This enzyme helps to convert hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water. Chemical actions that happen within the cell produces hydrogen peroxide, which is poisonous and therefore can kill the organism. As a result the presence of the enzyme catalase in the cell helps to quickly convert this toxic substrate into safer products of water and oxygen (All Science Fair Projects, 2004).
The effect of the temperature on the reaction time of human hand responding to a sight stimulus Design Research Question: How does the temperature affect the reaction time of human hand in responding to a sight stimulus? Hypothesis: Temperature is an important factor in regulating blood supply and nerve signals. Lower temperatures decrease the nerve signals from brain to hand, thereby slow the reaction (Ascroft). When the hand is submerged in cold water, the sensory receptor nerves in the skin recognize the fall in temperature and send signals to the hypothalamus. Then the hypothalamus sends signals that cause blood vessels to constrict in order to preserve heat.
How does temperature affect the rate of reaction of amylase? 3. Hypothesis a. As the temperature increases, the rate of reaction of amylase also increases. After it reaches the optimum temperature, the rate of reaction will start to decrease until all the enzymes are denatured.
The damage will cause the walls to harden over time and lose elasticity and increase blood pressure, as well as increase the work load on the heart. (Neighbors) The harden vessel cannot expand and accept the surge of blood that is produced by the heart. Once the inner wall of your artery is damaged from injuries, inflammation or disease; this creates a weak area or tear in the artery walls where the buildup of plaque and other cellular waster products will accumulate at the site and develop into a process called Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is characterized by deposits of fatty or lipid materials in the thickening of the walls. Should this process continue and build up inside the walls of your arteries, it will slow down, or even block the rate of blood flow to your heart muscle.
Gene therapy is now considered a new therapeutic area of study in modern medicine. Genes are special segments of DNA that provide the information to the body to properly function. It involves the transfer of genetic information into the tissues and organs of patients. As a result, it can be used to eliminate diseased genes or restore their normal functions. Another application of gene therapy involves the inclusion of different function to the cells, in order to either fight cancer or other diseases.
Denaturing occurs when an enzyme is exposed to higher temperatures of heat and causing it to break the weak bonds that hold the molecule together. Enzymes must be able to remain is a stable environment to ensure they are able to perform functions not only
Initially, stretches of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) are resected at the stalled forks or DSB ends which are quickly bound by replication protein A (RPA). Rad51 replaces RPA and binds to these ssDNA with the aid of the Rad52 mediator function (21,22). Rad51 form a nucleoprotein filament, which can then engage in homology search by strand invasion forming a homologous DNA
They are used due to their ability to infect a cell and integrate their genetic material into the host. Two types of gene therapy are: 1. Somatic gene therapy2. Germline gene therapy Gene therapy mainly targets single-gene recessive disorders, viral infections and acquired genetic diseases. Ethical issues arise when considering gene therapy due to a vast majority of reasons.
How could a single nucleotide change on the plasmid alter the fragment pattern observed in the gel? (3 points) When a single nucleotide is change on the on the plasmid, it will make the restriction enzyme not to recognize the fragment pattern and also all the numbers at each site will be altered or this action could make the fragment not to be incised at the expected site, which could make a larger fragment to travels a short interval on the gel with less fragments than expected. It could also make it to be incised at more places than that originally expected and the result will be increased, smaller fragments that move further across the gel. There may also be no change in the banding pattern. 4.
From that point on, new nucleotides are added to each of the original strands (A to T, C to G) until the result is two identical sequence copies of DNA. 3. How is DNA information used to synthesize polypeptides? A gene or protein is used to make polypeptides. In order to create this gene, transcription and translation must take place to create a protein from DNA.
My group recorded higher heart rate compare to the class average when we used caffeine on the Daphnia as seen in Figure 2. Several errors could have accounted for this data. This including perhaps the Daphnia’s heart rate may have changed because of fear while being moved from the bowl to the microscope slide. Another possible error could have also been the amount of time that it took to change the solutions, which could have accounted for slight variations in heart rate. Temperature is yet a further error to account for as the microscope slide temperature was constantly changing to view the specimen, and change the dosage of caffeine or alcohol.
The lysosome then cannot break down sugars and slows the digestive system. These sugars are found in muscle cells which makes the overall muscle weaker when the cells are affected by the lack of AGG. The malfunction of this organelle may cause many issues for the other organelles in the cell. The lysosome becomes overpacked when the excess of glycogen builds up. The bloating of the lysosome may end up in its rupture which would severely damage the other organelle and ruin their functions.
For some people, excess sodium leads to fluid retention in the body, and this causes the heart to have to work harder. If your heart has to pump harder, your blood pressure goes up. Excess dietary sodium may also increase your risk for heart failure and stroke. Too much salt could cause impacts on our bones , this could trigger osteoporosis a condition of diminished bone mass and increasingly fragile bone . also our kidneys could be affected too as too much sodium could have a negative impact and gives u a high chance of getting kidney stones .