4.2. TMDs related to Disc Derangements A disc derangement is defined as a displaced disc relative to the condyle and eminence of the temporal bone (5,9,12). Displacement of the disc affects the functional joint movement, can cause movement limitation and gives problems with functional jaw activities such as chewing, mouth opening, yawning, talking, smiling, singing and brushing teeth (92). Many etiologic factors have been suggested to explain disc derangements (93-99). Direct or indirect trauma to the jaw may cause stretching, tearing, or rupture of the disc, lateral ligament, or capsule.
A prolapsed fragment may compress an adjacent nerve root or the multiple roots to cause the neurological symptoms. Our discs deteriorate with age, the inner nucleus in our disc, which is like a soft gel dries out and becomes less spongy. The outer annulus is also at risk for cracking or splitting as it becomes brittle with age. If this spilt extends through the annulus, then the nucleus can squeeze out into the spinal canal, thereby pushes the nerves. Let us understand the facts about this disorder.
Other studies have tried to determine the relationship between the mandibular symphysis, some have seen that disturbances to its morphology and growth pattern can cause hypodontia while others show hypodontia can change the morphology of the mandibular symphysis. The aetiology of hypodontia can be multi-factorial with different factors playing a role. The mechanism of how these factors act is still uncertain but ultimately they cause hypodontia due to either: 1.physical obstruction or disruption of the dental lamina 2.space limitation 3.functional abnormalities of the dental epithelium 4.failure of initiation of the underlying mesenchyme. (Nunn et al., 2003) Hypodontia affecting teeth in the anterior region poses various physical and emotional problems. These include altered facial appearance, malocclusion, difficulty in mastication and speech (Nunn et al., 2003), delayed primary tooth exfoliation (Neville et al, 2013).
Part 3: What Are the Symptoms of Myasthenia Gravis? Myasthenia gravis affects voluntary muscles, and the muscles that control eyelid movement, swallowing, and facial expression are most frequently affected. The onset of symptoms may be sudden and may not be immediately recognized as myasthenia. The first symptom is often weakness of the eye muscles, which may vary greatly among individuals. Symptoms may range from a localized, limited form (ocular myasthenia), which affects the eye muscles, to a generalized, severe form, which affects many muscles, including those involved in breathing.
If the lesion is not completely excisional, the result can be a recurrence and possible additional bone destruction by its evolution, leading to periodontal defects and additional tooth loss (KENDRICK F; WAGGONERW. F, 1996). The objective of this study is to describe a case of jaw injury diagnosed as peripheral ossifying fibroma and confront with data from the current
In people with Marfan syndrome, this "glue" is weaker than normal. That 's because of a defect in the body 's production of fibrillin (pronounced: fuh-BRIL-in), a special type of protein that 's found in connective tissue. Weakened connective tissue can lead to problems in many parts of the body, especially the heart, eyes, and joints. For example, people with Marfan syndrome often have very loose, flexible joints as a result
Complete rectal prolapse is a life-style altering disability that commonly affects older people. Rectal prolapse occurs when a mucosal or full-thickness layer of rectal tissue slides through the anal orifice. Full-thickness prolapse of the rectum causes significant discomfort because of the sensation of the prolapse itself, the mucus that it secretes, and because it tends to stretch the anal sphincters and cause incontinence. Surgical management is aimed at restoring physiology by correcting the prolapse and improving continence and constipation, whereas in patients with concurrent genital and rectal prolapse, an interdisciplinary surgical approach is required. Rectal prolapse frequently coexists with other pelvic floor disorders,
While, treated with HE reduced trabecular bone lesions, especially in the secondary spongy areas and reduced the number of bone resorption pouches and OC. H-HE can also recover the Tb.N, Tb.Th and Tb.Sp just as positive group. CONCLUSION This study has demonstrated that H-HE can effectively increase BMD of the femurs, increased Tb.N and Tb.Th, but reduced Tb.Sp, all of which contribute to the treatment of
Periodontal diseases:- Periodontitis is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disorder induced by microorganisms and defined by progressive damage of the tooth supporting tissues leading to tooth loss. This is to be recognized from gingivitis which is a reversible inflammatory reaction. Periodontitis is a main public health dilemma because it is common, it decrease quality of life, it decrease chewing purpose and hurt aesthetics, and finally results in tooth loss and disability. Periodontitis starts with a microbial contagion, accompany by a host-mediated damage of soft tissue induce by hyperactivated or primed leukocytes and the production of cytokines, eicosanoids, and matrix metalloproteinases that induce clinically notable connective tissue and bone damage. Bacterial collection on the teeth is necessary to the induction and progress of periodontitis.
1.1. INTRODUCTION Spasticity is a condition in which certain muscles are continuously contracted. This contraction causes stiffness or tightness of the muscles and can interfere with normal movement and speech. Spasticity is usually caused by damage to the portion of the brain or spinal cord that controls voluntary movement. The damage causes a change in the balance of signals between the nervous system and the muscles.
This disease breaks down the coating of nerve fibers or axons, those are called Myelin Sheath. This disease also breaks down brain cells, which are imperative for everyday functioning and intelligence. Symptoms of this disease include, developmental mental delay, seizures, stiff limbs, Optic atrophy: wasting of a muscle of the eye, resulting in vision difficulties, deafness, irritability, spasms, and ataxia which is the
It’s filled with a substances known as synovial fluid that helps with lubrication to in which helps reduce friction between the femur and the tibia during flexing and extensions of the knee. The joint surfaces of the femur and tibia are covered with hyaline cartilage that also helps to reduce friction between the tibia and femur. 6: When there is a fracture a blood clot forms and when those blood vessels are ruptured it send out a signal for phagomatic cells to come to the area and rid the area of dying or damaged cells. Fibroblasts and osteoblasts to come to the area and help with releasing bone forming cells. Case # 2 1: A complete communicated fracture is a fracture that not has been broken in two but the bones have shattered into pieces.