Biotic factors affecting the distribution of species Chamaesipho brunnea and Lepsiella scobina The two species C.brunnea and L.scobina share a predator relationship, which, along with other biotic factors and their tolerance levels determines their distribution on the rocky shore. The C.brunnea has a fundamental niche of MTZ-HTZ, which means that it could hypothetically live anywhere in those zones if no predation and competition (mainly interspecific) were present. However, since predation and competition is present in the intertidal zone, the realised niche of the C.brunnea narrows down to the HTZ. This (the realised niche) is the zone that the C.brunnea can actually occupy due to relationships with other organisms, such as predation and
The sunlight also affects the amoeba. The amoeba doesn't like much sun because it might dry it up or overheat it. Some biotic factors are its recycling, purifying, and fertilizing. They are a natural source for purifying water and are very helpful in their ecosystems. Lots of the amoeba also recycle and decompose.
Oceans have been one of the first things that have been formed on the planet Earth. What are the things that need to keep it “running”? In the Pacific Ocean, biotic factors include fish, whales, sharks, dolphins, jellyfish, and a lot more. These are all biotic factors because they are living or once were living. On the other hand, things that are not living and never were living are called abiotic factors.
When the population of planktivorous fishes increases and there is no predation refuge (e.g., oxygenated hypolimnion) for large-bodied zooplankton, less efficient small-bodied zooplankton grazers (e.g., rotifers and herbivorous copepods) typically dominate zooplankton communities, thus allowing for the overgrowth of phytoplankton. Various previous studies have proven the strong connection in relation to the size structure of zooplankton communities and phytoplankton abundance. Collected data implies that predatory forces serve important roles in aquatic communities and ecosystems. To add on, biomanipulation on water effects normally lasts for a short period of time. (i.e., weeks to months), most obvious in small, easily-managed systems, and impacted by resource availability, namely phosphorus and nitrogen (Benndorf 1990; Carpenter et al.
Foraminifera, were marine amoebas that built tiny shells. These animals were appearing for the first time. Another creature that also appears is the stromatoporoids, guessed to be a sponge-like organism. An increase in the amount of micro-plankton caused an increase in the number and diversity of filter feeders. The lophophorates
The text starts out describing the earth’s biosphere as a membrane that stretches from the ends of the earth, encapsulating everything in a layer of life. Edward O. Wilson continues the first chapter by describing some of the most extreme climates of the earth; as well as the microscopic organisms that manage to withstand these conditions. One example being the harsh climate of the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, where freezing temperatures prevent the soil from being warm, rich and nutrient-bearing. However, Wilson goes on to explain how hardy microscopic bacteria were able to survive in spite of these conditions; due to the occasional rush of meltwater from glaciers or ice fields. A further example of an egregious environment that is still habitable by these microbes are the gardens of The Antarctic Sea, where algae is able to endure the harsh conditions of the freezing water by gaining energy from mineral deposits deep within the ocean.
The excess nutrients may induce pathogen and provide the elements required by the pathogen to proliferate or become directly toxic to the coral making them more susceptible to the disease.The imbalance in the exchange of nutrients between the zooxanthellae and the host coral reduces light penetration to the reef due to nutrient-stimulated phytoplankton growth, and, most harmful of all, may bring about proliferation of seaweeds (Dubinsky, 1996).Nevertheless, the study had discovered that the coral capable to recover and revive once the nutrients supplies stopped. Last but not least, various chemicals of pesticides and fertilizers from agriculture practices are flowing into the water cycle via soil infiltration and surface run-off. One of the most critical threats
So, for the average salinity of oceans which is about 35ppt, it can be deduced there is 350 grams of salt in every 10000 grams of water. The salinity of water affects different organisms in different ways. Some organisms cannot survive in water bodies with a high concentration of salt. Oysters help maintain good water quality. Oysters can tolerate water body areas with a salinity range of 10ppt – 27ppt, but if oysters are in areas with salinity above 15ppt, they (mostly their population) get affected by a disease called MSX.
Boric acid is then absorbed by plant and transport through the channel BOR1 and NIP5:1. Absorption of boron depends on some soil and non soil factors. Boron plays important role cell wall synthesis, nucleic acid and carbohydrate metabolism, and several metabolite pathways. Boron concentration in plants leads to toxic levels. Toxicity occurs related to acidic or alkaline soil or low rainfall conditions.
Beach erosion has raised as due to natural factors.” “Increase the susceptibility of coastal infrastructure such as the airports and other government establishments. Agriculture changes in temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide will negatively affect agriculture output. Tourism will be negatively impacted as beaches and other coastal ecosystems sea level rise are affected by climate change. Water resources in Jamaica will be also affected by climate change.” The Bahamas case study “increases in the number and intensity of tropical storms. Changes in preciptation patterns heavy rainfall in the northern Bahamas and drought in the southern parts.