Unlike our previous model (Nayek S K, Basumallick S et al. 2013) , here we have excluded H2O assisted H bonding interaction between Glu272 and atovaquone as this interaction is absent in the experimentally determined crystal structure (Hunte et al. 2014) of atovaquone
We then added 10cm3 ethanoic anhydride to the salicylic acid and swirled the contents, this mixes together the two chemicals. We then added 5 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid to the flask and thoroughly swirled the mixture, this creates the solution that makes the aspirin. We then warmed the flask for 20 minutes in a 400cm3 beaker of hot water which was approximately 60°C, we made sure the flask did not go above 65°C because this could have caused the contents to evaporate. Part 2: Using a 25cm3 measuring cylinder we measured out 15cm3 of ethanol into a boiling tube and then prepared a beaker half filled with hot water at approx. 75°C, we got this temperature by filling the beaker with cold water and slowly adding boiling water from a kettle until we reached the right temperature.
Preparation of ketoconazole loaded Proliposomes Ketoconazole (KTZ) loaded proliposomal gel formulations were formulated by method reported by Perret et al. 1991 with slight modification. Constant amount of drug was added to varying ratios of phophatidylcholine and cholesterol which constitute lipid component of 1mmol quantity. This lipid mixture was prepared in clean and dry, wide mouthed glass vials to which 400µL of absolute alcohol was added and after confirming the formation of homogenous dispersion, the glass vials were heated thermostatically on a water bath at 60-70oC with intermittent shaking. Add 160µL of double distilled water maintained at the same temperature to the transparent solutions formed, these upon cooling change to yellow translucent liquid/gel or white creamy proliposomal gel. Proliposomal gel formulations with positive and negative charge were prepared in above mentioned manner by adding 10 mol% of total lipid of stearylamine
5-aminotetrazole monohydrate: In a 250 ml round-bottom flask equipped with a condenser for refluxing (90 °C) and a magnetic stirring bar, 5.00 g (5.95 mmol) dicyandiamide (three times crystallized), 7.47 g (11.9 mmol) sodium azide and 11.00 g (17.8 mmol) boric acid and 100 ml of water is added and allowed to reflux for 24 hours, after the completion of the reaction, until the solution pH to about 2 to 3 as hydrochloric acid 37% is added (about 12 ml) Then the reaction mixture was cooled in a refrigerator for 18 hours and the white crystals formed. The mixture was filtered and washed three times with 10 ml of water and and dried in 60 °C for 5 hours and finally 45.8 g of product by it will be obtained. 5-Aminotetrazol monohydrate:
The volumetric flask was then filled up to its 100 mL mark with deionized water. The buret was washed out with dionized water and then with the strong base NaOH before being filled up with NaOH. About 20 mL of the unknown weak acid was pipetted into a beaker. The starting volume of the NaOH in the buret was recorded before about 4 mL of the strong base was titrated into the weak acid solution. The final volume was recorded.
Like OPC-67683, Nitroimidazo-oxazine is a nitroimidazole that has demonstrated bactericidal and sterilizing activity against drug-resistant and non drug-resistant TB. Nitroimidazo-oxazine has also shown activity against both active and latent TB. In a 2002 agreement with the former biotechnology company Chiron, The TB Alliance is carrying out phase II clinical testing on Nitroimidazo-oxazine (Diacon et al. ). Nitroimidazo oxaine is also active against latent TB bacteria .In a latent state, bacteria are anaerobic and else replicating very slowly and non replicating.
Standardization of NaOH solution The prepared solution in part A was used to determine the acidity of the two different brands of soft drinks. But before it, the NaOH solution was standardized first. A 0.15 g of potassium acid phthalate was dissolved in 0.05 L of water in an Erlenmeyer flask. Afterwards, 3 drops of phenolphthalein was added.
The aqueous extract was prepared by dissolving 1g of dry extract with 20 ml of sterilized distilled water, so the final concentration of extract would be 0.05 g/ml, from this solution other concentration were prepared (0.1-0.2) g/ml. the solutions were shaken for 30 min. The extract was centrifuged (30,000 rpm; 15 min) and the supernatant was Separated. To hydroalcoholic extract, 80 g of the powder was extracted with aqueous methanol (75%). The other two concentrations were prepared from soaking sixfold aqueous methanol (75%) with different amounts of powder.
Tn 4351 was originally isolated from bacteroides fragilis  . The transposon was successfully introduced into Cytophaga succinicans, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Flexibacter canadiansis, Flexibacter strain SFI and Sporocytophaga myxococcoides by conjugation . Tn 4351carries two antibiotic resistance gene. One of the codes for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin which is expressed in bactroides but not in E.Coli. The other gene codes for resistance in tetracycline and is expressed in aerobically grpwn E. coli, but not in anaerobically grpwn E. coli or in bacteroides.
50 μL of these dilution solutions were separated on the TLC plate coated with SNISG. The plate was developed with petroleum ether: ethyl acetate (4:1) and the movement of solvent was usually controlled at 1 cm from the upper edge. After completion, the plate was dried until no solvent smell remained. It was sprayed with an ethanol solution containing 10% sulfuric acid, and heated at an infra-red drier until obvious color came up, as shown in Fig.2 (B.ab). Simultaneously, the amount of silver nitrate in the impact of isolative effect was investigated with the sample procedure, as shown in Fig.2
The chemiluminescence part of the experiment, we had to make four solutions labeled as ‘stock solution A, solution A, stock solution B, and solution B’. For the ‘stock solution A’ we put the luminol product, (0.242 g) in a 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask and dissolve it with 2 mL of 3M NaOH. Then we took 1 mL of the ‘stock solution A’ and diluted in 9 mL of water using a 50 mL beaker. Solution A. For the ‘stock solution B’ we mixed 4 mL of potassium ferricyanide solution and 4 mL of hydrogen peroxide solution using a 25 mL Erlenmeyer flask.
Purpose This experiment is to determine the concentration of the solute copper sulfate pentahydrate, and the unknown solution, by passing different wavelengths of light through each solution. Procedure Weigh out approximately 5g of copper sulfate pentahydrate. Record the mass and place the solute into a 50 mL volumetric flask. Fill half of the flask with distilled water, add the stopper for the flask, and lightly shake the flask, until the copper sulfate pentahydrate fully dissolved.