The theoretical yield for Zinc Sulfide is 0.49 grams but the actual yield is 0.38 grams. So if 0.38 is divided by 0.49 and multiplied by 100 then the percent yield for Zinc Sulfide would be 77.6%. When it comes to Sodium Chloride, the theoretical yield is 0.58 grams and the actual yield is 0.45 grams. So when 0.45 grams is divided by 0.58 grams and multiplied by 100, the percent yield would be 77.5% of Sodium chloride. The actual yield is directly taken from the mass of the products in the experiment while the theoretical yield is determined by using stoichiometric calculations.
The chemical reactions can be found below in Table 2.8 The amount of copper metal extracted from the 0.9899 g sample of malachite was measured to be 0.5682g. The theoretical yield of copper metal was calculated to be 0.5690 g. The percent yield was calculated to be 0.135%. The sample calculations for theoretical yield and percent yield can be found after Table 3. At the conclusion of heating the malachite, the hammer test and the resistance test were performed on the samples of copper to test their physical properties as compared to pure copper metal. The hammer test was performed to see if the sample was malleable since pure copper can change shape easily when force is applied.
The experimental Ksp at 291.15 K was found to be 7.10 x 10-4 + 5 x 10-6 and compared to the literature value of 3.8 x 10-4. Since ΔH° reaction and ΔS° reaction was assumed to be nearly independent of temperature, the change in enthalpy and entropy of the reaction was found using the gradient and intercept respectively of the linear plot of lnKsp versus the reciprocal of temperature. Using van’t Hoff equation, ΔH° reaction and ΔS° reaction was found to be 44 ± 1.3 kJ K-1 mol-1 and 89 ± 4 J K-1 mol-1
This rare earth element is ductile because it has the ability to deform under tension. It is also malleable because it is able to be permanently pressed out of shape without cracking. Ytterbium has a Vickers Hardness of 0.206 gigapascals and a Brinell Hardness of 0.343 gigapascals
Once the true stress-strain curves were developed from the data extrapolated by the tensile tester, mechanical properties of each metal were compared. 316 Stainless Steel yielded the highest toughness, tensile strength, and percent elongation. For application purposes, environments that entail high impact load, like jet engine components or heat exchangers, are suggested for 316 Stainless Steel. Additionally, as a result of the corrosion resistant properties, 316 Stainless Steel is suggested in environments that entail chemical usage like textile processing equipment and marine atmospheres. A36 steel obtained the lowest yield strength and tensile strength.
Experimental Viscosities in cP of 65 wt% Sucrose and 30 wt% Sucrose Solutions at Tested Temperatures in ˚C Compared to Literature Values of Viscosity in cP with Percent Error Concentration of Sucrose (% weight) Temperature of Solution (˚C) Average Viscosity of Sucrose Solutions Calculated (cP) Literature Value of Viscosity of Sucrose Solutions (cP) % error 65 20.7 138.67 147.2 5.79 65 40 42.88 44.36 3.34 65 60 18.31 17.9 2.29 30 20.7 2.9376 3.187 7.83 30 40 1.999 1.833 9.06 30 60 1.239 1.2 3.25 The graph of the viscosities at the tested temperatures for the 30 wt% sucrose solution can be seen in Figure 1. The graph of the viscosities at the tested temperatures for the 65 wt% sucrose solution can be seen in Figure 2. In both graphs error bars are included, but due to scale an the small amount of error, they cannot be seen. The viscosities collected by the class at each temperature versus concentration are graphed in Figure 3. The complete set of data from the class can be found in Appendix B.
Then, the averages for each test were calculated and recorded in Table 2. The results were then transferred to Graph 1, which displays the effect of change in volume on pressure and illustrates the inverse relationship between the variables. Graph 2 demonstrates 1/volume versus pressure, and should have a linear best fit line that goes through the origin. However, due to the line of best fit not going through the origin, it is indicted that there are random and systematic errors. Graph 3 demonstrates pressure times volume versus pressure and should be a horizontal line.
The rate of cooling is immaterial except for some steels which are susceptible to temper brittleness. As the tempering is increased, the martensite of hardened steel passes through stages of tempered martensite and is gradually changed into a structure consisting of spheroids or cementite in a matrix of ferrite, formerly termed as sorbite. These changes are accompanied by a decreasing hardness and increasing toughness. The tempering temperature depends upon the desired properties and the purpose for which the steel is to be used. If considerable hardness is necessary then the tempering temperature needs to be low.
Thermal shock defines the way in which some materials are proved to damage if they are in contact to an unexpected change in temperature. If nothing stops this crack from propagating through the material, it will cause the object's structure to fail. Borosilicate glass is made to withstand thermal shock better than most other glass through a combination of reduced expansion coefficient and greater strength, though fused quartz outperforms it in both these respects. Some glass-ceramic materials include a controlled proportion of material with a negative expansion coefficient, so that the overall coefficient can be reduced to almost exactly zero over a reasonably wide range of temperatures. Reinforced carbon-carbon is
Data for determining the concentration of the unknown ferricyanide solution Peak Current (A) Calibration Line Cathodic 3.00E-5 y = 6.00E-6x 1.00E-6 Anodic 2.15E-5 y = 5.00E-6x 1.00E-6 Calculation 3: Cathodic scan of unknown concentration X=(3.00E^(-5)+1.00E^(-5))/(4.00E^(-6) )= 10mM For Table 2a, the value for the cathode unknown is 10 mM while the anode is 1.53 mM. There is an 85% difference between the two which is most likely to be caused by the 10mM outlier. Now if the 10 mM data values are removed the results are 5.2 mM for the cathode and 4.5 mM for the anode. This is a 15% difference between the two calculated unknowns. Although the percent difference is not idea, it is considerably better than the values show in Table 2a.