The term cereal is a derivative from Latin word 'cerealis' which means ‘grain’ which is botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis and is composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereals are defined as edible seed of the grass family, Gramineae (Bender & Bender 1999). Cereals have a long history of use by humans, which dates back to prehistoric times. Cereals are consumed annually at 166 kg per capita in developing countries and 133 kg in developed countries (FAO 2003). They provide a range of macro- and micronutrients and its consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of developing several chronic diseases like Cardio vascular disease, Cancer, Diabetes mellitus.
The possible sources of protein for poultry are the seed legumes. Seed legumes are characterized by protein that contains high level of lysine and low level of methionine (Akanji et al 2012). Many locally available source of protein and energy like grain legumes, contribute in the supply of poultry industry in Africa (Akanji et al 2012). Soya bean mean and other oil crop byproducts like noug cake are major sources of protein in poultry diet. Inadequate production and location specific make it not to be easily accessible and expensive.
Leafy vegetables constitute the bulk of African Indigenous Vegetables used throughout the continent (Maundu et al., 2009). African people obtain leafy vegetables in different ways. They may be harvested from the wild, from fallow and cultivated fields, or cultivated (Jansen van Rensburg et al., 2007). For most species, the young growth points and tender leaves are the plant parts used in the preparation of vegetable dishes. Petiole (and in some cases twigs) are also included, discarding old and hard stems (Vorster et al., 2002).
The principle of chemotherapy is that by using of chemotherapeutic agents or drugs, cancer cells can be removed. These drugs or chemotherapeutic agents act at the cancer cells and controlled the process of cell mitosis but they can produce toxicity.1 1.2 Cell Cycle The series of events in which one cell undergoes in process of division and accomplished in an individual called cell cycle. There are number of phases in cell
The montane rainforests in Southern Ethiopia are the only place in the world where coffee still grows wild in its natural habitat. For this reason, these areas require protection (stellmacher et al.,2010).Indigenous communities have been utilizing wild coffee for centuries, and the art of preparing coffee is a central element of the Ethiopian culture. Depending on intensity of management, level of
Starchy plant foods-Cereals, Tubers and Roots • Cereals and legumes: Cereals and legumes are important contributors of carbohydrates and proteins to the diet. The traditional methods for fermenting cereals and legumes are simple and inexpensive. However, these methods are changing rapidly through modern microbial technology. Soybeans, black grams, mung beans, and Bengal gram are the principal legumes, and rice is the main cereal used in the preparation of a variety of fermented foods in different parts of the world. • Roots and
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA GAINING ECONOMICALY FROM GENETIC ENGINEERING: African countries especially South Africa will gain from the genetic engineering of insect-resistant cotton. Especialy in Kwa-Zulu Natal where alot of small-scale farmers have been practicing thid. This might not solve the food shortage in Sub-Saharan Africa but is extremely valuable economically, especially in rural areas. Another use of genetic modification in South Africa is the use of tobacco. Tobacco is a very drought resistant and hardy crop, it will be used to produce vaccines against he deadly HIV virus.
Quinoa is a potential fodder and grain crop, given its high protein content of seed and its ability to grow in a wide range of environments and stress tolerance. Quinoa can suitably grow in different stress conditions such as drought, acidity, high soil salinity and frost. (Vacher, 1998; Jensen et al., 2000; Bhargava et al.,2003a, 2006a; Jacobsen et al., 2003). 2. Importance of Chenopodium in India The popularity of quinoa is growing worldwide but in India it is still considered to be an underutilized crop.
Some of the studies show that the peanuts can reduce the risk of developing gallstones by 25% 4. Protect from Cancer: Peanuts like Legumes have big concentration of phytosterol called beta-sitosterol (SIT) which is useful to protect form cancer and reduce the tumor growth. U.S studies shows that the when women and men eat at least 27% and 58% peanuts then it lower the risk of getting colon cancer. 5. Helpful to increase Memory: Peanuts are helpful in increasing the brain functioning and boost the memory because it it often named as brain food which contain Vitamin B3.
Another advantage is that GM grains could help with decreasing global warming – more plants and crops will be able to grow in previously unsuitable areas, leading to the increase in O2 levels and decrease in CO2 levels, reducing global warming (ConnectUS, 2017). There is the disadvantage of having a lower level of biodiversity. As more pests die, they are also reduced in the food chain, which, in turn, affects their predator’s food source; the MD grains may also be toxic to some organisms leading to possible extinction (ConnectUS, 2017). Cross contamination is another disadvantage – GM pollen may cross pollinate with e.g. grass or weeds, which may develop “superweeds” with the GM properties (Lombardo,