Contrast i. Wavelength of radiation The range of visible light is 400-700nm. Different rays have different wavelengths as shown in fig 1. So, before the experimentation one should know the specific wavelength of a particular radiation ii. Light refraction and image magnification Light is refracted when it enters from a medium of light into glass. When a light bends while passing through a lens, then light rays are focused at a point that particular point is known as Focal point and due to which a larger image of the object is observed.
These specific qualities are based upon its material make up and the interactions with the surrounding environment experienced by it. The properties break down into the physical strength and interactions that ECC undergoes, along with the chemical reactions and characteristics that allow the process of self-healing to occur. These physical properties include remarkable tensile strength and ductility, which allow for one of the most important interactions in the concrete itself: micro-cracking. The process of micro cracking significantly increases the tensile strength and remains within a very low degree of permeability. This low permeability reduces the effects associated with the absorption of chemicals which include the corrosion of steel reinforcement and erosion of the concrete itself.
One of the areas wherein macromolecular crowding has made appreciable impact is protein structure, function and stability. [reference] Experimental and theoretical work have demonstrated large effects of macromolecular crowding on the thermodynamics and kinetics of many biological processes. The influence of macromolecules on protein stability is thought to arise from two phenomena: hard-core repulsion and chemical interactions. The repulsive interaction is always stabilizing because it involves only the arrangement of molecules and they affect the entropic component of
Thermal properties of liquids play a major role in thermal related applications in industrial processes. The heat transfer property of any fluid is dependent mainly on its thermal conductivity. Conventional heat transfer fluids have poor thermal conductivity which makes them inadequate for high thermal applications. Scientists have tried to enhance the inherently poor thermal conductivity of such conventional heat transfer fluids using solid additives. Fine tuning of the dimensions of these solid suspensions in millimeter and micrometer ranges for getting better heat transfer performance have failed because of the drawbacks such as still low thermal conductivity, particle sedimentation, corrosion of components of machines, particle clogging, excessive pressure drops etc.
New artificial materials called meta-materials have some interesting electromagnetic characteristics that is not found in nature. One of the characteristics is the negative index of refraction which is realized by combining negative permittivity and permeability. These negative permittivity and permeability are commonly realized by split ring resonators (SRRs). Here, a mathematical formulation is adopted for analytical derivation of dielectric constants of non-magnetic solid materials. For this, the geometry of cylindrical single split ring resonator is defined with the parameters like inner radius (R), thickness (w), height (h), and gap width (g).
The structures of the self assembled particles were studied using Zeiss-Carl (Libra-120) transmission electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 120 kV. The schematic of a typical TEM is shown in Figure 2.5. Figure 2.5: Schematic diagram of Tunneling electron
The band gap decrease is observed due to the annealing effect. Broad emission bands are achieved and due to annealing the green emission are doubled and the red emission is slightly increased . The optical transmittance characteristics of Zn-CdS thin film was observed to be in the wavelength range of 300 to 900 nm at room temperature. The observed optical transmittance is around 85 % for Zn-CdS thin film. It was also found that the optical band edge was blue shifted from the reported bulk band gap value.
Properties The properties of the material are induced due to the presence of pendant groups present in the polymer. Crystallization is prevented as the molecules of the polymer chain are not closely packed because of the pendant group (CH3). As a result, this polymer is amorphous, rigid and tough plastic. “Pendant groups snag on adjacent groups and eliminate slip between polymer chains. This causes PMMA to be rigid, brittle, have a high glass transition temperature and little mold shrinkage.” (Website: http://steinwall.com) Acrylic is scratch resistant than polycarbonate and hardest thermoplastic.