A vital concept in utilitarianism plays a vital impact in expressing the notion of pleasure. It allows explanation to the perspective of the theory that consequences are to be considered according to the value of whether they are of quality or quantity. Mill points to these views being in correspondence with the natural desires or pleasures of the human being. Substantiation to this is from the view that the desires of people are based on their ability (of that which is desired) to create, maintain, or increase the state of pleasure. Mill address that the morality of utilitarianism does not lie within the realms of merely individual satisfaction.
Reference: https://academlib.com/3030/management/organiational_culture From the above cultural views or theories; we can understand that there is a strong relationship between the culture & structure which can be explained in below frames. From the above frame, we can understand that the value is the way to take the decision since the value should guide the behavior. Added to this; the organizational structure can have significant effect on its member. Hence it will predict the behavior. This is in addition to the individual factors that were explained in LSI .
At some pints of my life, I have used utilitarian moral reasoning, which can be associated with economic cost-benefit analysis somehow, where good consequences should be maximized over bad consequences. Additionally, I tend to believe that whether actions are considered morally right or wrong would somehow depend on their effects. Thus, under this philosophical view we can evaluate a wide range of situations that take place in our lives, where we are aware in advance that our decisions would be evaluated wrong or right depending entirely on its consequences. From the other hand, this theory may be questioned the adequacy of this theory and how practically it can be utilized in our everyday decisions, however the primary agenda of utilitarian approach calls people to be more motivated towards maximizing the overall happiness, which in turn can contribute towards right moral
The ability of any human being to reflect on themselves and being adequately informed by one’s own thoughts and actions is an attribute associated with humans and highlighted in social cognitive theory. Humans are agents who act and function as self examiners of their functioning of thought processes. To make this effective it is required to devise reliable ways of differentiating between factual and accurate thinking. In self-reflective ways, humans create ideas and act on them and predict occurrences from them. They make judgments based on the accuracy of their thoughts try to change them accordingly.
Rational Choice Theory, in layman terms sees people as maximizers of self-interest who engage in a cost-benefit calculation to achieve a better outcome over a worse one (Lim, 78). The self-interest of an individual is subject to change, based on the surrounding conditions. This is further explained by the assumption that rationality can be institutionally, culturally or socially defined (Lim, 82). Hence, it can be said that rational choice theory takes into account the effect of the environment on the decision making capability of an individual. This is also referred to as the ‘’thick variant’’ of rationality and using this variant enables this theory to be applied on both micro and meso-levels.
Whereas Maslow and Herzberg look at the relationship between internal needs and the resulting effort expended to fulfil them, Vroom 's expectancy theory separates effort (which arises from motivation), performance, and outcomes. Vroom 's expectancy theory assumes that behavior results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain. Vroom realized that an employee 's performance is based on individual factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. He stated that effort, performance and motivation are linked in a person 's motivation. He uses the variables Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence to account for this.
consider several definitions of attitude which mention different meanings from different contexts and perspectives (Alhmali, 2007). Based on the theory of planned behavior, Montano and Kasprzyk (2008, p. 71) state, “Attitude is determined by the individual’s beliefs about outcomes or attributes of performing the behavior (behavioral beliefs), weighted by evaluations of those outcomes or attributes. Thus, a person who holds strong beliefs that positively valued outcomes will result from performing the behavior will have a positive attitude toward the behavior. Conversely, a person who holds strong beliefs that negatively valued outcomes will result from the behavior will have a negative attitude.” On the other hand, Gardner (1985) also points
Often such work portrays a particular configuration of statements, symbols, and meanings as an example of underlying and enduring collective understandings produced in extended ideological struggles. The epistemological assumptions behind such representations are that the rationality of the elements establishing the frame map to some corresponding consistency in a belief system. This is seen as particularly important for purposes of frame alignment. However, the presupposition is that this framing discourse is an internally stable enough tool for the communication of meaning so that interpretive strategies for mobilization and action are possible. In many of their analyses, frame analysts also assume some isomorphism between their abstractions and the ways in which people actually use framing
On the basis of whether or not someone likes the topic they are learning about this also greatly influences the value people have towards knowledge. Do emotions allow us to see things the way they truly are? Or do they just hinder our perception of knowledge? I think that our intuition greatly influences our idea of knowledge, but in two different ways. On the one hand, we are prone to say that emotions do more or less determine the way we think about specific things, whereas reason would not be able
Conflict management is the process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict. The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in organizational setting (Ra him, 2002, p. 208). There are several causes of conflict. Conflict may occur when: • A party is required to engage in an activity that is incongruent with his or her needs or interests. • A party holds behavioral preferences, the satisfaction of which is incompatible with another person 's implementation of his or her preferences.