When you open your mouth you can see the hard palate which is present in front of your mouth. Hard palate is made up of processes of maxilla and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones. It is bounded: • Anteriorly and Laterally : alveolar arches or maxillary teeth • Superiorly : respiratory epithelium of nasal cavity • Inferiorly : masticatory epithelium of oral cavity • Posteriorly : connected to the soft palate Blood supply of hard palate is mainly from greater palatine artery and nerve supply is via tha anterior palatine and nasopalatine nerves.  2. Soft palate : It also known as " Velum palatinum ".
It forms the walls and lips of calcarine fissure in medial surface of occipital lobe. There is a definite localization of retinal projections upon visual cortex. In fact, the point to point projection of retina upon visual cortex is well established. The peripheral retinal representation occupies the anterior part of visual cortex. Macular representation occupies the posterior part of visual cortex near occipital pole.
Panaromic radiographs are important in assessing the alveolar bone morphology, presence or absence of specific teeth, their morphology, structure, ,and their eruption sequence and special relationship. However it provides limited information about space availability in dental arch, mandibular symmetry, paranasal sinuses, root parallelism, and temporomandibular joint. Advantages of panaromic radiography (OPG) include low radiation dose, low operator time, relatively short patient exposure, excellent patient comfort. Positioning of young patients with mixed dentition for panoramic imaging is always a challenge because of increased chances of patient movement during exposure resulting in image of poor diagnostic quality. Thus the purpose of our study was to evaluate common positioning errors in panoramic radiographs taken for Orthodontic assessment.
Also known as early childhood or infant caries, baby bottle tooth decay occurs when a baby’s teeth are continually subjected to the sugar contained in fruit juices, formula, milk, and other sweetened liquids and foods. Even diluted fruit juice can cause this condition. In most cases, it occurs in a child’s front teeth, appearing as dark brown spots. If you’re planning to have a baby or suspect your baby child may have baby bottle tooth decay, here are some preventive measures and treatment methods. The Problem with Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Baby caries can be painful for babies and young children, besides make it hard for them to chew and eat.
It can vary in thickness and hardness on each tooth, from tooth to tooth and from person to person. It can also vary in color (typically from yellowish to grayish white) depending on variations in the thickness, quality of its mineral structure and surface stains. Enamel has no blood or nerve supply within it. It is enamel’s hardness that enables teeth to withstand blunt, heavy masticatory forces. Enamel is so hard because it is composed primarily of inorganic materials: Roughly 95% to 98% of it is calcium and phosphate ions that make up stronghydroxyapatite crystals.
Pulp canal obliteration (PCO) is a condition which can occur in teeth where hard tissue is deposited along the internal walls of the root canal and fills most of the pulp system leaving it narrowed or completely obliterated. Signs and symptoms of obliteration may include Yellow tooth discoloration, Lack or response to pulp sensibility test (e.g. ethyl chloride, electric pulp test. (1) Pulp necrosis has also been reported as a complication with ranges varying from 1% to 16%(2). Periapical lesion develops in a range of 7.3% to 24% in these cases up to 4 years after initial traumatic injury, especially in completely calcified teeth(2).
Giant Dental Calculus in the Retromolar Region of a Young Female: A Case Report ABSTRACT Calculus consists of mineralized bacterial plaque that is formed on natural teeth surfaces . Based on its relation with gingival margin it is divided into supragingival or subgingival. Supragingival calculus is commonly seen over the buccal surfaces of maxillary molars and lingual surfaces of mandibular anterior teeth. The predisposing factor for calculus formation has to be ruled out. In the present case of a 25 year- old female , 3x2 cm large indurated mass was found in the left side of retromolar region and radiograph was taken.
The Gingival Sulcus The gingival sulcus is a V-shaped, shallow space between the free gingiva and the tooth surface. The base of the sulcus is formed by the junctional epithelium—a specialized type of epithelium that attaches to the tooth surface (Bosshardt, &Lang, 2005). The Attached Gingiva The attached gingiva continues from the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) to the mucogingival junction and lies between the free gingiva and the alveolar mucosa. In health, the attached gingiva is pale or coral pink. In dark-skinned individuals, it may be pigmented.
The air is prevented by a complete closure at some points in the mouth .The three types of 6 closure are:1) bilabial [the two lips] for /m/ as in ‘’ram ‘’ *ræm] , 2) alveolar [tongue blade against alveolar ridge] for /n/ as in ‘’ran [ræn] and 3) Velar [back of tongue against the palate] for /ŋ/as in (ring) [riŋ] . (Roach , 1983 : 45) . Kennedy (2003:23) expounds that the airflow can be sent
Hair roots, hair follicles and hairs 6. Sebaceous gland The dermis is structurally divided into two main areas: a superficial area (adjacent to the epidermis), called the papillary region, and a deep thicker area known as the reticular region10, 11. Papillary region: The papillary region is composed of loose areolar connective tissue. It is named after its fingerlike projections called papillae which extend toward the epidermis. The papillae projecting into the epidermis in the palms, fingers, soles, and toes, forms contours in the skin's surface, which are called friction ridges.