The absorbance of the mixture was measured at 30s (A1), 5min and 6min intervals. The value A2 was obtained by averaging the values of the 5th and 6th minute. iii. Calculation (A1-A2)sample/control Urea concentration = 15.4 mmol/L X (A1-A2)standard Creatinine concentration = 313 mmol/L X (A2-A1)sample/control
Grade) in 1 l water, standardize this solution with 0.0192(N) silver nitrate solution. The solution losses strength gradually and must be rechecked every week. 1 ml of solution = 1 mg CN (ix) Standard cyanide solution: Dilute 10 ml stock cyanide solution to 1 litre with distilled water, mix and make a second dilution of 10 ml to 100 ml. Prepare fresh solution daily. 1 ml = 1 µg CN (x) Chloramine –T: Dissolve 1 gm chloramine – T in 100 ml distilled water.
Oxidation of apomorphine is one of the challenges when it is formulated as aqueous solutions. It spontaneously undergoes oxidative decomposition in aqueous solution to yield a bluish-green color in presence of light and air (Art 31 and Burkman et al., 1963a; 1963b from Art 66). The catechol group of the apomorphine molecule is susceptible for oxidation to form a quinone (Art 66, 31, and 5 from Art 31). The decomposition of apomorphine is dependent on its concentration, pH and temperature of the solution (Art 147, 31). The chemical half-life is reported to be 39 min in conditions similar to that of plasma (at 37 ºC and pH 7.4) (Art 147).
In the test D, a dark-brown solution is seen in the test tube after adding the iodine as the pH of the 1ml 0.5M HCl is not an optimum pH for the activity of amylase that the starch is broken down into maltose . Amylase may not break down the starch well. In test tube E, a colourless colour formed. It is because redox reaction occurred during the test. Idoine reduced into idoine ion ， which changre from brown to colourless.
Materials and methods 2.1. General 1H (400MHz), 13C(100MHz) (Bruker-400) and 2D NMR (500MHz) spectra including 1H= H correlated spectroscopy (COSY), heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) were recorded in
Determination of the Acid Neutralizing Capacity of an Antacid Tablet The stomach has an acidic interior generated by dilute HCl, “stomach acid”, which insures proper digestion. When the acidity of the stomach becomes high enough to cause discomfort, brought about by the ingestion of certain types of food, an antacid preparation can be taken to neutralize the excess stomach acid. The active ingredient in every antacid is a base, the most common being metal hydroxides, metal carbonates or a mixture of the two. Table 1 lists the active ingredients in several commercial brands of antacid. Table 1.
Since the extraction temperature of acetic acid extraction prior to terephthalic acid production are desired at T = 313.2 K and atmospheric pressure. The temperature has been carried out since the aqueous solution that fed to extractor column is originally coming from the top product of distillation column in the upstream process, also keeping the temperature at 313.2 K to avoid the crystallization of acetic acid during the process. Therefore, the experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the quaternary system involving methyl acetate + p-xylene + water + acetic acid at a desired temperature and pressure were performed, as shown in Table 2. The data given in Table 2 were shown as mass fraction. The compositions of the feed mixtures for
In this experiment, extraction was used as a separation technique to separate the acid, base, and neutral compounds. In extraction, two immiscible solvents with opposite polarities are used to dissolve different parts of the solute with different polarities, so they form two distinct liquid layers. In this experiment, methanol, an organic solvent, and an aqueous solution were used as the two immiscible solvents. The extraction solvent must also be capable of dissolving one of the mixture components. While initially it seems as though methanol, an organic solvent would be incapable of dissolving a polar acid or base, the conjugate of the acidic and basic compound will dissolve in methanol.
Since my unknown had the presence of a halogen, I narrowed down possible starting materials. I combined all of the characterization data from week 2 and was able to identify my unknown starting material as para-bromoaniline and my product as 4-bromoacetanilide. The melting point for para-bromoaniline is typically 66°C and 168°C for 4-bromoacetanilide. Both of these numbers match with the melting point ranges I obtained. This data, combined with the TLC evidence that my unknowns were more polar, allowed me to reach this conclusion.
The purpose of this lab was to determine the percent water in magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, or Epsom salt. The experimental percent water is determined to be 42.06% in both trials, making the average also 42.06%. To determine this percent water a heating and cooling procedure was used. First, the vials were cleaned of impurities using the lab oven and were not touched after this point. The 2 vials were then weighed and vial 1 weighed 14.7681 grams and the second vial weighed 14.7451 grams.