In this experiment, 0.95 mL of phosphoric acid, 0.75 mL of 2-methylcyclohexonal, and Drierite are added to a Hickman still. The prepared Hickman still is submerged halfway into a preheated sand bath. The temperature range was kept above 140 ˚C but below 165˚C to prevent the product from evaporating. The product collected in the ring of the Hickman still for about twenty minutes. Once the reaction was complete, the product was transferred into a pre-weighed vial using a slant Pasteur pipette. The percent yield of the recovered product is calculated, and IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography are used to analyze the purity and percent composition of different alkene
For this lab, zeolite and magnetized zeolite were synthesized and compared with charcoal to find out with would be the most effective in the sequestering of Procion Red dye. Finding the concentration and absorbance of each zeolite, magnetized zeolite, and charcoal, along with a calibration curve, the best adsorbent is determined. Charcoal was the overall best sequestration of the Procion Red dye, since the adsorbent was highest compared to the others.
The purpose of this experiment was to identify given Unknown White Compound by conducting various test and learning how to use lab techniques. Tests that are used during this experiment were a flame test, ion test, pH test, and conductivity test. The results drawn from these tests confirmed the identity of the Unknown White Compound to be sodium acetate (NaC2H3O2) because there were no presence of ions and sodium has a strong persistent orange color. The compound then will be synthesized with the compounds Na2CO3 and HC2H3O2 to find percent yield. Weighed 1 gram of NaC2H3O2 and mixed it with ionized water. Boiled 12 mL of 1.0M Acetic Acid added into a beaker containing the sodium carbonate on a hot plate until all the liquid is evaporated
Experiment 3 comprised three reactions: formation of dimethyl tetraphenylphthalate, hexaphenylbenzene, and tetraphenylnaphthalene. All 3 reactions used tetraphenylcyclopentadienone as the diene to generate products with high aromatic stabilization.
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about metal hydride reduction reactions. Therefore, the sodium borohydride reduction of the ketone, 9-fluorenone was performed to yield the secondary alcohol, 9-fluorenol. Reduction of an organic molecule usually corresponds to decreasing its oxygen content or increasing its hydrogen content. In order to achieve such a chemical change, sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is used as a reducing agent. There are other metal hydrides used in the reduction of carbonyl groups such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4). Nevertheless, the latter is not used in this experiment since it is very reactive and extremely flammable. On the contrary, NaBH4 is relatively mild and it can be used with protic solvents.
The purpose of this experiment is to perform a two step reductive amination using o-vanillin with p-toluidine to synthesize an imine derivative. In this experiment, 0.386 g of o-vanillin and 0.276 g of p-toluidine were mixed into an Erlenmeyer flask. The o-vanillin turned from a green powder to orange layer as it mixed with p-toludine, which was originally a white solid. Ethanol was added as a solvent for this reaction. Sodium borohydride was added in slow portion as the reducing agent, dissolving the precipitate into a yellowish lime solution. Glacial acetic acid and acetic anhydride were added to the mixture while refluxing, which converted the lime colored solution into a clear mixture. The flask was cooled in an ice bath and the solution
The data obtained from the experiment had undergone statistical analysis using t-tests and the results were recorded in Figure 1.0 and Figure 1.1 above. According to the data obtained in Figure 1.0, the p-value is less than 0.05 in all 5 treatment solutions. It is also shown intensity Figure 1.0, the calculated t-value of each concentration of NaHCO3 in each treatment is greater than the critical t-value. These findings show that the null hypothesis is rejected, and that there is a major difference between the observed and expected values.
Yes, the melting point data does make sense. While the melting point range was close to the given temperature range, the data was still a little lower than expected. This may have been caused by impurities in the product, since impurities cause melting point range to decrease. The product was observed moving up the capillary tube during melting point analysis, which indicates that the product was not completely dry before melting point range was taken. The water in the product evaporated and caused the product to be pushed up. It can be hypothesized that the water in the product affected the melting point
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions that take place on benzene, and how the presence of substituents in the ring affect the orientation of the incoming electrophile. Using acetanilide, as the starting material, glacial acetic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid were mixed and stirred to produce p-nitroacetanilide. In a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask, 3.305 g of acetanilide were allowed to mix with 5.0 mL of glacial acetic acid. This mixture was warmed in a hot plate with constantly stirring at a lukewarm temperature so as to avoid excess heating. If this happens, the mixture boils and it would be necessary to start the experiment all over again. After obtaining an homogeneous mixture, the flask was placed in an ice bath during five minutes next to a graduated cylinder containing 5.0 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid. The temperature of the ice bath was recorded to be 1.1 °C. Likewise, a second graduated cylinder containing 1.8 mL of nitric acid and 2.5 mL of sulfuric acid was immersed in the cold ice bath to keep the three different solutions at the same temperature.
The objective of this experiment was to use an aldol condensation reaction to synthesize 3-nitrochalcone from 3- nitrobenzaldehyde. This was accomplished with a Diels-Alder reaction that utilized 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, acetophenone, ethanol, and sodium hydroxide.
Chevron Phillips Chemical Company is the major producer of Cyclohexane. This successful company hoses the three largest cyclohexane plants in the world. Many are puzzled by how the production of cyclohexane seems to have become stagnant. Perhaps this is due to the cost of benzene increasing or the demand increasing. Through thorough investigation, the answer to this question and many more can be answered. There are two methods of obtaining cyclohexane. These two methods are fractional distillation of naphtha and hydrogenation of benzene. Research suggest that the hydrogenation of benzene is the most economical way to create our chemical of choice. According to ICIS, cyclohexane is used in the production of adipic acid used to