Johnson held seats in both the US House of Representatives and the US Senate for Texas. When Johnson was in the US Senate, he opposed the federal government dealing with civil rights, and thought it was a responsibility of the states to handle. After Johnson’s years in the Senate, he ran for president, but lost against Kennedy. But when Kennedy was assassinated, presently the Vice President, he was bumped up to President. Johnson was for federal civil rights, and signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Most Southern states, with a history of passing discriminatory laws, were required to get preclearance (known as Section 5 under the Voting Rights Act) from the Justice Department before making any voting changes (Rosenthal, 2016). But in the case of Shelby County v. Holder, five Supreme Court justices disabled that requirement (Rosenthal, 2016). Since section 5 have been axed out, some states have rushed
We see multiple successes of voting equality attempted through amendments, however, the Supreme Court’s decision on Shelby County v. Holder has pushed back years and years of effort for voting rights. Supreme Court’s 5-4 ruling was in Shelby County’s favor, stating that the Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act was unconstitutional along with Section 5. Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr, who wrote the majority’s opinion, said that the power to regulate election was reserved to the states, not the federal government. As a result to the court’s decision, the federal government can no longer determine which voting law discriminates and can be passed. After the case, many states had freely passed new voting laws; the most common voting law states passed
The EEOC Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is a federal agency that administers and enforces civil rights laws against workplace discrimination. Before 1964 employers can sometimes not hire an individual because of several reasons. For example, an employer can denied a person application because of race, color, national origin, religion, sex orientation, age and disability. The Civil Right Act of 1964 as amended in 1972 allows employees to fight back. Therefore, employers can no longer do such things.
Despite the fact that the Constitution did not employ the term “slavery”, Article IV provided for the return of persons who escaped from their masters “held to service or labor” such as fugitive slaves. After 20 years of the confirmation of the Constitution in 1808, Article I provided the end of the slave trade. Many questions were left non responsed by the Constitution, especially, about the statue of slavery in the new territories obtained by the United States. (ibid) The failure to treat the comprehension and the honesty with slavery in the Constitution guaranteed a conflict over this issue and was particularly one of the leading motivations for war and those reasons were demonstrated in the quotation of the American Civil
The 45th Alabaman Governor, George Wallace, declared in January of 1963, “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever (Dean).” In the 2000’s most people thought racial division and relations were behind them, but not in Birmingham. Segregation is still prevalent throughout Birmingham; whether it be segregation in school districts, healthcare, etc. In 2004, Alabama voters rejected an amendment to remove the segregated schools provision from the Alabama constitution. According to RacialinJustice.org, they state, “The amendment would have removed a provision from Article XIV, Section 256, of the Alabama Constitution of 1901, which reads: “Separate schools shall be provided for white and colored children, and no child of either race shall be permitted to attend a school of the other race” (Equal Justice Initiative). This just shows that Governor George Wallace’s words were wistfully true, in 2005 and
The act was aimed on banning discrimination based on gender, race, religion or national origin. Although the Civil Rights Act faced the longest filibuster in the United States senate history following a bloody civil rights struggle, it was passed into law in 1964 after the assassination of John F. Kennedy. This article will review some of the surprising facts on
Following the Civil War (1861-1865), a trio of constitutional amendments abolished slavery, making the former slaves citizens and gave all men the right to vote regardless of race. Nonetheless, many states particularly in the South, used poll taxes, literacy tests and other similar measures to keep their Black neighbors practically broke. They also enforced strict segregation through “Jim Crow” laws and condoned violence from white supremacist groups like the Ku Klux Klan. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin. First proposed by President John F. Kennedy, it survived strong opposition from southern members of Congress and was then signed into law by Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon B. Johnson.
Despite the US Supreme Court ruling that made segregation in schools illegal (in Brown v. Board of Education), school districts around the country continued to discriminate against Latino students. As [someone from documentary] mentions, “quote”. Although nearly half a century has passed since East L.A. Walkouts, limitations on Chicano Studies continue to occur. To understand the contributions of the ‘Walkouts’, we will paragraph 1 and challenges that the education of Chicanos currently face. Prior to the implementation from the federal government, such as English as a Second Language (ESL), College Assistance Migrant Program (CAMP), and Executive Order 15333, Chicano students in California and Texas demonstrated protested which forced school districts and the United States government to focus on the issues.
The Continuing Importance of the Voting Rights Act On June 25, 2013, the Supreme Court made its final decision on the Shelby County, Alabama v Holder Case, deeming Section 4 of the Voting Rights Act, passed by Congress in 1965 and extended many times, unconstitutional. Section 5, although not being struck down, became insignificant without Section 4 as it was the triggering formula that determined the coverage of Section 5. This Supreme Court decision took away the key part of the Voting Rights Act, which was an important method for the federal government to oversee and enforce the enfranchisement of black people in some states. While justifying their decision, the Court mentioned that Section 4 only applied to specific states and it was