Text And Discourse Essay

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Difference between text and discourse

By Akishova Zamira Djanibekovna,

Kazakh Ablai khan University of International Relations and World Languages

Abstract
The present article deals with the identity of two concepts such as “discourse” and “text”. The purpose of this article is analysis of linguistic characteristics of discourse and text. The distinction between “text” and “discourse” is contrasted by famous scholars and identified by different definitions. The material gathered from various articles and linguist’s work. The results supported by Malinovsiy’s opinion.

Key words: discourse, text, translation.

Introduction
XX century was an attempt to differentiate between categories of text and discourse. Until now, the question of the relationship
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The term “Discourse” in 60-70 years XX century was understood as a connected sequence of sentences or speech act. In this sense it could be interpreted as close to the concept of text. At the end of the XX century the term discourse has been considered not only in terms of semantics and syntax, but also pragmatic.
The issue of discourse also considered by Abelian I.Y. H said: "It 's about human speech communicative system". The discourse was supposed to be treated as a "text plus the situation", and the text, respectively defined as "negative discourse of the situation.
The term "discourse" is one of the most difficult term, because it has more than a dozen different and conflicting definitions. The term discourse means ( Eng. Discourse, from Lat. Discursus) “ movement, talk”.
Arutyunov N.D. gives the following definition for discourse: "The discourse is a coherent text in conjunction with extra-linguistic, pragmatic, sociocultural, psychological and other factors, the text in the conceptual aspect; we are considered as a meaningful social action, as the components involved in the interaction of people and their mechanisms of consciousness (cognitive processes). Discourse - a speech, "immersed in life." Therefore, the term "discourse", in contrast to the term "text" does not apply to the ancient and other texts, which are due to real life can not be restored immediately.
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But with the development of communication theory, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive paradigms becoming the content of these concepts gradually acquires a different meaning. Discourse does not really exist in the form of its "grammar" and its "vocabulary" as a language.
Discourse exists primarily and mainly in the text, but it has some special grammar, special vocabulary, special rules of usage syntax. A.Y. Popov by his work presented relationship between text and discourse. According to V.G.Borbotko text as a linguistic material and discourse is always in the text. [2].
Discourse - the form in which this communication takes place. The text gives food for thought, discourse - explicit expression of thinking. " [2, c.41-44].
Differences between discourse and text are the following:
Text is transportable not only in space but also in time. Discourse vanishes the moment it has happened; it can be recalled but not called back.
Text can be analyzed but discourse cannot.
Text is abstract design, discourse its actualization.
In conversation analysis, the data is the discourse, not the transcript or
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