AN ANALYSIS OF GENERAL ENGLISH TEXTBOOK AT THE PREPARATORY YEAR PROGRAM IN AN EFL SITUATION Dr. Taj Mohammad (Assistant Professor,Dept. Of English,Najran University, KSA) email@example.com ABSTRACT A textbook is usually a published book specially intended to assist students to improve their linguistic and communicative abilities (Sheldon, 1987). Its basic purpose is to achieve course goals, aims and objectives. If a textbook is not selected properly, it directly affects teaching learning environment of an institution. The present research aims to to critically analyze the contents of the textbook currently being used at Preparatory Year Program Najran University.
Introduction According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2016), one of the definitions of Language is that it is “The system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and feelings to each other”. Therefore, language is used to express the thoughts and feelings, and vocabulary is necessary to express it. But learning the definitions of words is fundamental. Many teachers believe that an effective instructional technique is to define words before reading a text because it supports vocabulary growth and helps them comprehend what they read; however, research indicates otherwise. Teaching English vocabulary may be challenging, and it takes a challenging teacher to achieve it.
1. Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study This study is emphasizing on what tactics of effective questioning employed by senior and junior English teachers. The writer wants to do some studies on questioning because questioning cannot be separated from learning process. As stated by Arslan (2006) “Questioning has been and is a dominant method of instruction in the classroom. Some say questioning is, in fact, the most important teaching technique in use today”.
Task-based language teaching can be obtained by slightly changing how original textbook materials are applied by adjusting classroom management, activity order and activity balance. Furthermore, characteristics of task-based instruction can supplement the existing textbook materials by finding more exciting starting points, extending the activities and defining the target of activities more clearly (Willis, 1996). Phases of the Task-based Framework Researchers have been suggested different sequencing frameworks for TBI (Ellis, 2003; Lee, 2000; Prabhu, 1987; Skehan, 1996; Willis, 1996). They assume three phases in common for TBI. Ellis (2003) names these phases as 'pre-task, 'during-task' and 'post-task', whereas Willis (1996) divides these phases into 'pre-task', 'task cycle' and 'language focus'.
The Effect of Research-Informed Reflective Sessions on the Quantity and Quality of Teachers ' Corrective Feedback on Students’ Paragraph Writing Chapter Ι Background and Purpose Writing is the most complex skill for second language learners. This difficulty can not only be attributed to creating and organizing new ideas, but can also be extended to the ability to transfer ideas to the appropriate context (Richards &Rendayana, 2002). Many factors are involved in process of writing that intensify the complexity of writing skill. Factors like mastering the elements of grammar, vocabulary, mechanics, content, organization and style are only few areas to consider in second language writing process (Hyland, 2003). Another source of difficulty
It is with great consideration that learning outcomes of the students will not improve if the teacher does not have any experience about which methods of assessment should be used to evaluate the students learning. Indeed contextual, a well prepared and effective teacher should have a direct influence in enhancing student learning. Effective and fairness assessment are the most common effectual process that mandated the whole system of education and progressively focussing on the evaluation of student. As stated by Heywood (2000), “that assessment has a powerful influence on student learning. However, it is not so well understood that institutional structures and procedures have an equally profound influence on teaching and learning and the
RUNNING HEAD: Benchmark Reading Instruction Reading Instuction Teaching reading and writing can be very complex in some classroom settings. Educators must be engaging with students and be able to build a classroom environment that is full of the tools for teaching reading and writing. Because reading and writing instruction is important, especially for several innovative minds wondering and dazing on what activity is coming up next. In order for students to learn teachers must integrate reading and writing for all content areas. One of the theoretical and evidence-based foundations of reading and writing there is one significant foundation that is very important based on the theoretical research.
Our textbook further explains that as the instructional (teacher) one can facilitate learning in many ways, if utilizing the “Right set of instructional stimuli”(pg. 40). This same perspective applies to the cognitivist learning theory where instructional design based on prediction that, “If a certain stimulus resulted in a particular response or outcome, it would do so again and again” (Harasim, 2017, p. 54). Another similarity between both learning theories, still relating to the instructional design is the taxonomies of learning. Two different authors constructed the taxonomies of learning for each learning theory: Benjamin Bloom (behaviorist learning theory) and Robert M. Gagne’ (cognitivist learning theory).
The use of instructional materials to provide learning activities for practice and drill needs realistic guidelines for their application for classroom setting. Students will learn more easily and remember longer if they practice individually what they understand or have learned through prior classroom experiences. It is important for the teacher to provide a variety of interesting drill items and situations in which students can use the skill or knowledge in other phases of learning (Oredina, 2011). Since textbooks and other instructional materials have a direct impact on what is taught in schools and how it is taught, curriculum development and curriculum materials are sensitive matters which are of great political importance. This is why the book sector in industrialized countries receives both direct and indirect subsidies.