The discourse analyst focuses on â€œan investigation of what that language is used forâ€, it means purpose and aim of communication, as has actually been mentioned before (Yule 1983: 1). Levels of analysis Crystal (1997: 15) mentions a few levels of analysis which are highly important for a detailed analysis of a text. Each level represents one area of linguistics such as lexicology or phonetics and phonology. On the basis of these areas different levels of analysis can be distinguished: phonetic and phonological, graphological, grammatical, lexical. Verdonk mentions importance of pragmatics and claims that â€œpragmatics is concerned with the meaning of language in discourse, that is, when it is used in an appropriate context to get particular aimsâ€ (Verdonk 2002:
Idioms An idiom is a phrase or a fixed expression having a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning. Categorized as formulaic language, an idiom 's figurative meaning is different from the literal meaning. In linguistics, idioms are presumed to be figures of speech contradicting the principle of compositionality. It being the key notion for the analysis of idioms and emphasized in most accounts of idioms. This principle states that the meaning of a whole should be constructed from the meanings of the parts that make up the whole.
These categories are the relationships which govern the words of the text. Reiteration does not refer to the repeated words only. It does not appear in the same dublicated element but also in the existence of different lexical item that is mainly related to the first one such as synonym or super ordinate of it. This case fits wide generally, without being sure of there is identity of reference or not. So lexical reiteration is not applied only on repeated items.
Conversational Implicature is one of the crucial phenomena in Pragmatics. It is used to elucidate how interlocutors mean more than they express verbally and non-verbally. It facilitates understanding of unsaid meaning which the hearer is supposed to infer. Conversational implicatures arise out of the treatment of the maxims of Cooperative Principle. The maxims, namely the maxim of Quality, Quantity, Relation and Manner, are expected to be followed by the interlocutors.
2.3.2 Theory of Semiotic Triangle Semiotic Triangle was developed by Ogden and Richard. The theory will be used to analyzed the kinds of sign as stated in the first problem. This triangle consist of three elements, they are (i) thought of reference, (ii) symbol, (iii) and referent. Symbols direct and organize, record and communicate. It is Thought (or usually say reference) which is directed and organized, and it is also Thought which is recorded and communicated.
It is necessary to understand the process of communication to draw a borderline between literal and metaphorical language. When speakers would like to describe something about a reality or experience in the world, they start by means of cognitive process in their minds. The speakers proceed to form the proposition as concise and relevant as possible for conveying the idea. Proposition is the idea or notion about something which is going to convey. In order to communicate this proposition, they will encode it by using linguistic codes which are conventional to pair the meaning of the idea with physical forms (text, utterance).
Theoretical framework Cohesion is an integral part of any set of discourse. Discourse is not just a random set of utterances, but it also shows connectedness. The central objective of discourse analysis is to characterize this connectedness. In their famous Cohesion in English, Halliday and Hasan analyse text connectedness in terms of reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesion. All these explicit cohesive ties give the text clear meaning.
A translator may subject him-/herself either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product. Translation is a complicated task, during which the meaning of the source-language text should be conveyed to the target-language readers. In other words, translation can be defined as encoding the meaning and form in the target language by means of the decoded meaning and form of the source language. Different theorists state various definitions for translation. The concept of norms in translation theory was