According to him, the behavioural responses of the individuals to their environment (specific responses) allow identifying the way in which individuals typically behave in a situation (habitual responses); by grouping habitual responses, personality traits can be identified. Using factor analysis, Eysenck found certain personality traits that he believed were fundamental (super traits) and comprise all the other traits. Initially, Eysenck found two super-traits: extraversion and neuroticism. Later, he found a third super-trait, which he called psychoticism. These super-traits are not categorical, but measured on a continuum: at the opposite end of extraversion there is introversion, at the opposite of neuroticism there is emotional stability, while socialization is the opposite of psychoticism.
Freud’s Psychosexual Development Stage Psychosexual development stage is one of Freud’s major contribution to the Psychology field. Some of the concepts were based on his earlier study- the division of mental life into id, ego, and superego. In Freud’s psychosexual theory, each stage represents the fixation of libido (Instinct energy contain in Id). A particular conflict is existed in each stage of the psychosexual theory. One may have to resolve the conflict in order to pass on to another stage.
It emphasizes that organizational processes play a significant role in perception as well as problem solving. The major proponents are Kurt Kofka, Wolfgang Kohler and Max Wertheimer. Gestalt psychologists viewed the human mind and behaviour as a whole suggesting that the whole is greater than the sum total of its parts. According to Gestalt psychologists, this movement happens because our minds fill in information that is missing. This belief that the whole is greater than the sum total of the separate parts led to the discovery of different phenomena that occur during
Introduction Studies of psychological theories are arguably the most relevant branches to examine to ascertain progress in a psychologist-client relationship, alongside client growth. The foundation that is essential to understand the inner workings of a client’s mind and the subsequent external behaviour is built from knowledge provided by theoretical insight. This paper will provide an abridged theoretical insight on Jungian Analysis- is the theory of the mind that stresses the value of wholeness for everyone. Aspects looked at will include: a historical background, key theorist description, key concepts, merit, techniques employed, critiques and relevance in the current context. Historical Background
Human Sciences is an area of knowledge which aims to explore and interpret the different explanations behind human behaviour such as its interrelationships or thoughts . However, humans are very complex systems and in many cases in order to study them we tend to simplify its complexity by breaking it up into smaller components rather than by exploring them as a whole. This way of producing knowledge, which is mainly used in identifying the causes behind our behaviour, is called reductionism. One example, of this approach is the use of models in Psychology for predicting and justifying different behaviours. The use of reductionism is clearly intended to allow us to understand different phenomenon by simplifying its complexity, nonetheless we
He also has Ego on one of his structure. Carl Jung’s structure of personality; He believed that each of us is motivated not only by repressed experiences but also in certain emotionally toned experiences that we inherit from our ancestors. His theory includes Archetypes are thought forms of the collective unconscious and predispositions to perceive the world in certain ways. In his Nature and Structure of Personality, the main systems are the ego, the persona unconscious with it complexes; and the collective unconscious and its archetypes. There are four types of archetypes, the persona, shadow, the anima and animus, and the self.
The emotional and behavioural consequences (C) of an activating event (A) is mediated by the beliefs (B) that the client has of the event. Hence, disputing (D) these irrational beliefs would cause an effect (E) leading to new feelings (F) and behaviours. Choice theory and “total behaviour” is at the heart of Reality therapy. “Total behaviour” is made up of an individual’s acting, thinking, feeling and physiology. The clients make choices about the way they express total behaviour, although the choices may sometimes be ineffective in fulfilling their needs.
In 19th century, Sigmund Freud discovered the psychoanalysis theory that has constructed a foundation about understanding the relationship between preconscious, conscious and unconscious minds later (Freud, 1904). From a psychodynamic point of view, Freud confident that human personality is dominant by the unconscious parts of our personality those we neither have responsiveness nor power over it; besides, Freud also discover a personality model to explain the connection of the minds by using id (unconscious), ego (conscious) and superego (preconscious) (Feldman, 2010). Freud (1923/1960), Freud used his personality structural model as an analogy to explain human mind where id represents our pleasure principle; ego represents our reality principle;
The most important product of his effort is his own personality” (Fromm,1962).The personality develops towards self-actualization and self-concept. Personality is build around the self-concept. For instance, a person would be less confident (personality) if he or she thinks negatively. We may alter our personality in order to accomplish self-actualization. Psychodynamic perspective: Freud 's theory focus on the relationship between conscious and unconscious mind.
The psychodynamic approach to leadership has its roots in Sigmund Freud´s (1938).Emotionally disturbed individuals and psychological theories of personality development form the basis of psychodynamic approach. One branch of psychodynamic theory is called psychohistory, which attempts to explain the behaviour of famous historical figures (in text citation Kets de Vries 1999). This approach gives importance making leader obtain good understanding on personality of oneself and to give importance and also encourages the group members to understand their personalities. This makes the team members to understand their reactions to the leader and each other.
Briefly, attachment theory is one of the influential developmental concept that underlines the human behavior and interaction and in addition to psychopathology and psychotherapy (Mickelson et al., 1997). It has been argued that attachment theory can contribute our understanding of psychosis development and maintenance (Liotti &Gumley, 2009). Psychosocial models of psychosis took attachment theory as their reference to examine psychosis development (Read & Gumley, 2010). Evidence from Dozier (1990) and Dozier et al.(1991) underlined that psychosis patients significantly had high levels of insecure attachment when compared to non psychotic patients. In particular, associations between avoidant attachment and psychosis found (Berry et al., 2008).
I’ve only played tennis once, Billie Jean King has played a countless amount of time and she helped out with equal rights in the process. Billie Jean King is undeniably courageous because because she was able to Persevere through her difficulties , she showed Excellence playing tennis, and she demonstrated Discipline while playing tennis when others didn’t . First, If she were to defeat Bobby Riggs, the triumph would be shared by every woman who knew she deserved equal pay, opportunities and respect. This shows perseverance because she knew that if she didn’t win then equal rights for women would be set back 20 years, so she had to practice everyday so she could have a chance at beating Bobby Riggs.