INTRODUCTION " Personality is the moral force governing body within the individual of those psychophysical scheme that determine his characteristics behavior and though " (Allport, 1961, p. 28). “A combine of attribute that makes a person unique” (Weinberg & Gould, 1999). One inclusive definition for personality is by Pervin (1996, p.414. pg.3) who cited: " Personality is the intricate associations of insights, influences, and practices that provide guidance and example to the individual 's life. Like the body, Personality comprises of both structures and forms and reflects both nature (qualities) and nurture(understanding).
The Big five personality traits is the model to comprehend the relationship between personality and academic behaviors. This model is able to account different traits in personality without overlapping and beneath each global factor, a cluster of correlated and more specific primary factors are found. This model consists of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Neuroticism describes vulnerability to unpleasant emotions. Extraversion describes positive emotions, sociability, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.
Farahani (1998) believes that four principles make up the cornerstones of trait theory of personality: 1) certain definite attributes or traits make up personality. 2) These trace are general to all people with a difference in their degree and extent. 3) Traits can be measured by identifying and examining the behavior that indicates them. 4) Personality is mainly determined biologically. According to Brunas-Wagstaff (1998), trait approach to personality assumes that personality traits are
Personality is a major study in the topics of psychology ; this important branch in psychology Is called personality psychology , and the psychologist tries to understand the thoughts , the emotions, the psychological reactions , and at the end they try to predict the human behavior , and this could be reversed , so they can conclude the other three by studying the human behavior very well . each individual’s personality is characterized by these four elements . The study of personality has a very old history ; it goes back to the Hippocrates when they recorded the first known model of personalities discovered by Galen . this theory was depending on four humors they are: blood , mucus, black bile and yellow bile . The personality in this model was highly related to the human body until the first noted physiologist Wilhelm Wundt who cleared the theory by the clear differentiation he made between the human body and the personality in the late 19th or the early 20th century .
The concept of personality has fascinated psychologists for years. Allport proposed the hierarchy of traits – cardinal, central, and secondary traits (Allport, 1945). Cattell also proposed his theory, the sixteen dimensions of human personality (Cattell, 1944). Jung developed a type-based theory of personality, with different dichotomous personality categories, which was further developed by Myers and Briggs in 1962 to produce the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Ford, 2013). Some psychologists have even argued that personality does not exist; that people change behaviour over time and across various situations.
The first factors that influencing an individual’s behavior is personality. There are three Personal characteristics that lead to consistent patterns of behavior. The first is observable patterns of behavior that last over time known as trait theory, second is how the unconscious of an individual reacts to stimuli called Psychoanalytic theory and the third is self-actualization and the drive to realize one’s potential also known Humanistic theory. According to Slocum and Hellriegal, “Personality represents the overall profile or combination of stable psychological attributes that capture the unique nature of a person. It combines a set of mental and physical characteristics that reflects how a person looks, thinks, acts and feels”.
Personality as a stimulus: some psychologists consider its social stimulus value in order to define personality. How an individual affects other persons with whom he comes in contact, whether he is impressive or repulsive, he has dominating or submissive personality. Personality, from this point of view, becomes identical to reputation and impression, mostly in terms of physical appearance, clothing, conversation and etiquette. Generally, this concept of personality is used in selecting applicants for various hobs and courses. 2.
Introduction A person’s body works in an extraordinary way. One’s behaviour and personality can either be shaped or even influences by internal (psychological development) or external factors (environment). In this assignment theories that contribute to personality will be dealt with in depth but first one has to understand what personality is. Personality can be defined, according to Meyer, Moore & Viljoen (2008), “as the constantly changing but nevertheless relatively stable organisation of all physical, psychological and spiritual characteristics of the individual which determine his or her behaviour in interaction within the context in which the individual finds himself or herself ’’ ¬(p.11). Later in this assignment we will go through
‘Personality traits are relatively stable, cognitive, emotional and behavioural characteristics of people that help establish their individual identities and distinguish them from others.’(Holt, Bremner, Sutherland, Vliek, Passer, Smith, 2015, p645) Some examples of such traits or characteristic include funny, outgoing or shy. As with many areas of psychology there are many theories and perspectives on development and approach to personality. I will discuss some of these theories, some of which are still used today. Psychodynamic psychologists such as Freud would argue that adult personality is influenced mainly by childhood experiences whereas humanistic psychologists might argue that personality depends on a person’s experience as an adult
The study on personality started with Hippocrates ‘four humors and give rise to four temperaments. Storm Paula (2006).Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson theories of personality paved the way for researchers to study the personality of personality of individual in organizational, individuals, group and social settings. Many research endeavors can be found on personality by using trait theory approach. One of such illustrious trait theory is five factor theory (Digman,1990; Goldberg, 1993) which is very practical to determine different work related behaviors and