A ‘law of nature’ is a general rule that is discovered through reason. This law supports the claim for human self-preservation and condemns destruction of humanity. It does not need to be written down because it is natural and made known to all by mental faculty, reason or philosophy. In Leviathan, Hobbes presents, what he thinks, are the three most important laws of nature. He sees them as important because he believes that, these laws will create a state of peace, in a state where humans are constantly at war against each other.
The Optional Protocol to Civil and Political Rights enables the individual to bring action against human rights violations. The rights conferred on the individuals by the Declaration shall be subject to the requirements of morality, public order and general welfare in a democratic society. The rights recognised in the declaration, are inalienable, universal, indivisible, inter-dependent and inter-related. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 has been a source for the various types of action taken by the United Nations. The provisions have inspired a number of international conventions, national constitutions, domestic legislation and decisions of
Meanwhile, the first five points involve Wilson’s recommendations for foreign policy that would promote peace: prohibition of secret deals, freedom of the seas, removal of economic barriers, disarmament of all nations, and adjustment of colonial claims. The fourteenth point addressed the need for a League of Nations, a multinational organization that would promote “political independence and territorial integrity.” In addition to this, he affirmed that he had no desire to belittle Germany as long as it was willing to cooperate with other nations to uphold justice, laws, and fair dealings. Overall, Wilson believed that this plan would ultimately avoid the causes of war.
These rights include the right to not be inflicted any harm or suffering, either physical or mental. Thus, the deontological perspective is heavily founded on the concept of morality and human dignity. Immanuel Kant was a strong supporter of this view. Hence, the deontological perspective is also known as the Kantian perspective. The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment as well as The Geneva Convention, 1949’s stand against torture are examples of adoption of the Kantian principles against torture.
As human beings, we are all born with an entitlement of freedom of speech or synonymously known as freedom of expression as it is a basic human right. It is stated in the Federal Constitution and it is important for us human beings to protect our rights to freedom of speech and expression as it is the backbone for a democratic society. Having the right to express oneself freely without any restrictions is an essential part of what it means to be a free human being. Article 10 in the Federal Constitution states that; (a) every citizen has the right to freedom of speech and expression; (b) all citizens have the right to assemble peaceably and without arms; (c) all citizens have the right to form associations. As Malaysian citizens, besides having the right to say and express whatever we want, we also have the right to assemble peaceably and we also have the right to form associations however it also being stated in Article 10 (2) (a) (b) (c) that the parliament has the right to impose restrictions on these rights.
Every organisation, by law, is required to have a policy in place relating to disability. Another example is The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 which protects racial equality and ensures that no person is discriminated against on the grounds of their race. It aims to promote good relations between people of different ethnic backgrounds. A final example is The Human Rights Act 1998 that covers all human rights and ensures that all individuals have rights on their side and can take legal action against any person or organisation that disrespects their human rights. These three example all help to protect individuals from discrimination and reflects the idea that everyone, regardless of individual differences should be treated both fairly and equally.
Human rights are the basic international rights and freedoms demonstrated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They are said to establish a “common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations” universally, meaning they are equal and inalienable (UN General Assembly, 1948). The creation of the European Convention of Human Rights secured that these rights would be observed, collectively (ECHR, 1950). Human Rights are categorised into three types; Absolute rights – such as the right to protection from torture, Limited rights – which may be limited under explicit and finite circumstances such as the right to liberty, and Qualified rights – which under limited circumstances it is possible to interfere with for example freedom of expression (Ministry of Justice, 2006). As Cushman (2012) states, these rights protect the individual from the encroachment or the excessive powers of the state; enabling them to access the judicial resources needed.
• Civil liberty are citizen’s freedom to exercise customary rights such as freedom of speech without government interference. • In U.S. this right are guaranteed by the laws of the country commonly known as the Bill of Rights. • For instance the government in U.S cannot interfere in an individuals freedom of worship or freedom of speech. • Civil liberties are rooted in the Bills of Rights which limits the power of the government. • Civil liberty are established for the good of the community.
International human rights law (HRL) is applicable during times of peace; and International humanitarian law (IHL) is applicable during time of armed conflict, war, and occupation. These two laws are founded to complete each other and both are part of international law which recognizes relations between states. International human rights law and international humanitarian law are applicable in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, but Israel is trying to evade its responsibility in the application of them and violate them. International human rights law aims to protect the fundamental rights of individuals and groups from violations. It depends on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in1948, also there