This does not exclude a quantitative approach being associated with a post-positivist approach. In contrast, for a researcher who favors interpretive, knowledge is a matter of interpretation (Schutt, 2009) so that the quest for understanding the complex world of lived experience demands that the researcher interact with the research objects/participants to get the viewpoint. The investigator favored a post-positivist approach since he believes that human knowledge can be challenged and modified in light of further investigation. Following is a description of the methodology that was followed for this
Some of the pros are that Hofstede provided a definition of culture and how culture can be measured. His research showed that cultural differences matter. Also, Hofstede's model provides managers of cross-cultural relations a tool to help them understand differences in value sets and behavior. Hofstede's model helped people in day to day life by making them understand about different culture. Another pro is Hofstede model negates that one set of principles is universally applicable by confirming that there are multiple ways of structuring organizations and institutions.
Thus the collective actions are visible for the researcher through language that was used to describe their actions, themselves and the consequences. This signs and symbols is the empirical data that enables the researcher to gain knowledge on their role and influence on the construction of the social reality, but still it is not only conditioned
Since the study I will be doing involves a case study, the narrative research theory seems the most logical direction as it corresponds with the purpose of my study. 3.4 HOW DOES THE THEORY REST ON EPISTEMOLOGY AND WHICH EPISTEMOLOGY IS MY THEORY BEST ALIGNED WITH? Narrative research theory involves the collection of data via interaction/interviews. The narrative theory data is sourced from an individual’s experience (story) and then interpreted by the researcher. The researcher comes to know about the phenomenon through interaction with the study subjects (Sandelowski, 1991).
He conveyed to readers both the practical and theoretical and ways of approaching theory generation. Additionally, the author tried to bring to light on how sensitizing concepts provide starting point for building analysis of data to generate a grounded theory. As a research method, it’s appropriate for identifying and explaining phenomenon and social processes. The author clearly explains dynamics of theoretical framework in his study. This clearly gives the readers a line of reasoning and basis as to why we should move grounded theory further into postmodernism.
Amir B. Marvasti briefly talks about two perspectives objectivism and constructivism.”Objectivism assumes that the information about the social world could be analyzed to reveal a reality or social structure beyond the data itself where as constructivism approaches data or social structure as a way of showing how the data, text or talk is organized and created through social interaction.” (Marvasrti A.B, 2004, p 83) Both of these perspectives are different from one another but they both interpret the information about society. It helps in analyzing qualitative data in different perspective because data in social research can be analysis through theory. Amir B. Marvasti trying to sate is that, there are different perspective from which we can analysis qualitative data but then there is this every changing relation between data and theory which is inevitable. Data is analyzed through theory and theory is produce through data, such theory is grounded theory that was developed by Glaser and Strauss in 1964. Grounded theory also knows as inductive approach gives importance to two main ideas, one is to highlighting on data analysis within the boundaries of data and another is to develop new theories from data.
Greene and Lee (2002) states that when considering the social constructivist approach an understanding of the way individuals function within society is important to appreciate the meaning they ascribe to their experiences of society and culture. Dean (1993 suggests that knowledge and meaning are created and influenced by institutions within the environment. From this individual suffering from mental illness will create their reality and will then view future experiences through this (Dewees, 1999) As previously explored dominate members of society determine values, beliefs and norms that is supported and maintained by that society. Kondrat and Teater (2009) suggest that if individuals do not ascribe to these they are considered ‘abnormal’
“influenced by your personal desires, traits, values, ambitions and abilities” but also a big part in determining these are “your social class, gender, race, religion and ethnicity” (pg.407). I find that quote so important now it’s as if they are steps to understanding your own society, and those aspects are what makes you an individual. I find that to be a valuable fact that sociology has taught me.
As we use various aspects of both the methodologies, the mixed research methodology has several advantages. This methodology offers multiple ways to approach the problem faced by the researchers. Generalizing the qualitative data and analyzing the unexpected data that emerge out of the research are the key aspects of the Mixed Research Methodology. Since it infuses the qualitative and quantitative ways, data resources like case studies, articles, interviews and surveys are combined in mixed research methodology. Mixed Methodology preferred where researchers are capable to gather aspects including data research and assimilation.
The researchers describe the establishment of rigor for each tenet. Establishment of credibility is through detailed data analysis, as well as, triangulation between categories and research. Using multiple researchers and sites enhances transferability within the study. Dependability and confirmability are adequate but can be improved. Member checking may be used as it offers researchers with the ability to ensure accuracy of transcripts used for coding (Creswell & Poth, 2018).