The Activity Theory: The Disengagement Theory

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The Disengagement Theory was proposed by Elaine Cumming and William E. Henry in 1961. The Activity Theory was proposed by Robert J. Havighurst and John W. Albrecht in 1963. The Continuity Theory was proposed by Robert J. Havighurst, Bernice L. Neugarten, and Sheldon S. Tobin in 1968. One assumption made by the Disengagement Theory is that elders try to avoid the stress that comes with weakening capabilities (Hillier & Barrow, 2015). To accomplish this, some individuals isolate themselves from social contact with activities such as reading, listening to music, or gardening” (Hillier & Barrow, 2015, p. 82). The Activity Theory assumes that mental and social activity is the essence of life for people of all ages” (Hillier & Barrow, 2015, p.81). Adapting a positive attitude is associated with high levels of activity, and better adjustment in life (Hillier & Barrow, 2015). Correspondingly, those who do not develop a clear role in society will be socially excluded. With an active lifestyle comes a “positive self-image, social integration, life satisfaction, and successful aging” (Hillier & Barrow, 2015, p. 81). Some aging adults manage to maintain their conduct, personality, and relationships. As adults age, they sustain their original mentality. “Individuals invest themselves in internal and external frameworks of their lives that allow them to accommodate a considerable amount of change without experiencing crisis” (Atchley, 2006). By adulthood, forbearance levels for stress
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