In the Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy vs. Pedagogy (1970) Knowles presented five basic assumptions about adult learners namely: 1. Adult Self-concept- When adults discover that they are capable of self-direction in learning, they often experience a remarkable increase of motivation to learn and a strong desire to continue the process of learning. Knowles (1975) himself contributed to the self-directed learning literature with a book explaining the concept and outlining how to implement it through learning contracts 2. Role of Experience in Adults – Experience provides a rich resource of learning in adult learning (Sommers 1989).The importance of experience in adult learning has been emphasized in andragogy literature. Learning is a continuous process where learners are trying to understand and apply their experiences in daily
According to Baierema (2014), adults learn differently from children and suggest that adults are self- directed in their learning. Adults have reached a point in their life that they see the value of an education and are ready to focus on their education. Adults are involved in the planning and evaluation of their instructions and possess experience which forms the basis of their learning activities. Furthermore, adults are most interested in learning a subject that is relevant to their job or personal life. Moreover, adult learning is problem-centered rather than content – oriented.
Adult learning theory is such an important theory that organizations should consider. “Knowles’s theory of andragogy is a constructivist approach to learning that involves facilitating adults to draw on their experience and so create new learning based on previous understandings” (Cox, 2015). Under his theory, there are six assumptions of adult learners, including the need to know, learner’s self-concept, role of the learner’s experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learning and motivation. Adult learning really helps organizations to understand and focus on adult learner, because adults as employees in organizations are totally different with students learning. Compares with students, adult learners dissatisfied with formal learning environments, the learning theory which assume ‘learners only need to know that they must learn what the teacher teaches’ cannot used for adults (Halpern and Tucker, 2015).
Differences Between Andragogy and Pedagogy Pedagogy and Andragogy differ in many ways, just as children and adults do. It is important to know the meaning and the differences in these two terms. Pedagogy refers to the methods of teaching used particularly with children. It always involves an adult aiding a child to ultimately become an adult (Yonge, 1985). Andragogy refers to the methods used in teaching adults.
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development: Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development was dependent on the thinking of the Jean Piaget. He believed that people progressed in their moral reasoning and ethical behavior through a series of stages. He believed that there were six identifiable stages which could be more generally classified into three levels. When children are growing, naturally their morality also develops. At the age of adolescence students no longer focus their attention to themselves but the tendency is to go beyond them.
Another piece to the assessment process for emotional family therapy is tying to understand why the cycles and patterns come to be. Therapist asks about clients past etiology and history to see if there are underlie events that cause the clients to create these patterns (Greenberg & Johnson, 1988, p.77-78). This part of the assessment could help the therapist learn about the client’s spirituality, culture, and gender issues. Questions about a client’s history can reveal different aspects of the client’s life to better help the therapeutic process. Emotional family therapy has an in-depth focus on assessment in order to reach the reason for the problem.
Introduction Learning theory is the process of how is the information been engaged, practice and grow during learning. Learning is defined as the alteration in behavior, in other words, learning is approached as an outcome from the end of some process of the product. Educators who hold the cognitive theory accept as true that the definition is a change of behavior is too constricted. There are four learning theories that been proposed by the psychologist. Its all having own reason and strongly believed in their theory.
In the Educational Leadership article entitle “The Boss of My Brain”, authors Donna Wilson and Marcus Conyers examines the explicit instruction in metacognition. Researchers stated that “explicit instruction in metacognition puts students in charge of their learning.” It was also stated that “meta-cognition supports learning by enabling us to actively think about which cognitive strategies can help achieve learning, how we should apply those strategies, how we can review our progress, and whether we need to adjust our thinking.” I believe this a unique teaching tool for teachers to implement with their students. With the use of metacognition, students whether they are struggling learners or gifted can learn how to use a variety of cognitive strategies to help improve their learning.
Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) pertains to the learning process by which people undergo. This theory focuses on how people learn, grow and develop. In addition, it gives emphasize on the importance of experience in learning process. According to Kolb D. A. (1984) cited by Kolb A. Y. and Kolb D. A.