They raised funds, held rallies, composed legal tactics, and decided to run two test cases. The first test case was thrown out by Judge Ferguson. Daniel Desdunes, a black man, boarded a white-only train car in Louisiana headed for Mobile, Alabama. He was arrested for violating the Separate Car Act of 1890 but the case went nowhere because he was not traveling within Louisiana state lines. Homer Plessy, the second test case, was chosen for his ability to look white enough to gain access to the train but black enough to be arrested and his travel would be within state
Alliyah Sharpe In the Southern states, there are Jim Crow laws, which are state and local laws that enforce segregation. The Louisiana Separate Car Act states that there is “separate but equal” train car accommodations for Blacks and Whites. This idea of “separate but equal” is not only used in train cars, but also used among many public spaces such as restrooms, water fountains, hospitals, etc, but it’s clear what blacks receive isn’t equal to whites. In an effort to cease the law and others, a citizens’ committee and railroad company created a case that would challenge the court.
The “Plessy V. Ferguson” case is a very important case in U.S. history and U.S. civil rights, as it legalized segregation for decades. Homer Plessy appeared to a white man living a Louisiana, but he was ⅛ black, which was considered black in Louisiana. When Plessy tried to board a “whites only” railroad car in protest of Louisiana's “Separate Car Act” that legally separated train cars, he was arrested when he refused to move to colored car on the train. Once the case went through both district and state courts, it moved up to the U.S. Supreme Court where Plessy and his attorney argued that the law ostracized the colored people from the white, which would be unconstitutional. This was known as the “Plessy V. Ferguson” case.
Atticus knew race was the main reason this case was brought to trial. At the time the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, took place, blacks were not treated equally. Atticus also knew that if a white man went to trial against a black man, or vice versa, the black man would be guilty no
Segregation was one of the key problems during most of the 1900s. Segregation is the enforced separation of different racial groups in a country, community, or establishment. Around the time when the the Civil War ended, slavery and segregation had been prohibited from the amendments of the U.S Constitution. Segregation was very wrong, because whites believed it was fair and equal. It was most definitely not.
Ferguson (U.S. Supreme Court, 1896) 1. Facts: -The plaintiff, Plessy, was a mixed race Louisiana resident with mostly Caucasian descent and “one-eighth African blood” (p. 1). -Plessy considered himself to be rightfully allowed the same rights as those who were White and purchased a first class ticket for a train, therefore sitting with White passengers.
While the slave system of the United States used the “One drop rule” to decide if someone was black, it cannot help but to undermine the concept of whiteness and the idea that white blood is superior. Even though Warwick is successfully performing the role of a white man, there is always the threat overhead that someone will find out that his blood is not “pure.” His sister and mother both live in an area that know them and their background, which is why, despite their “superior” blood, the family is “under the shadow of some cloud which . . . shut them out from the better society of the town” (21). This “shadow” is their known black lineage. No amount of performance in the town that knows that they are not “pure” whites will allow them to move as whites in white
All that was said about Plessy v. Ferguson for example, is that it did not control because in that case African Americans were not deprived of public transportation and were ensured of equal accommodations. The Court’s characterization of the ordinance and their handling of precedents points to a decision that was grounded in the principles of private rights of property and contract. This helped the Supreme Court strike down laws that were racially discriminatory and that led to residential segregation. Nevertheless, the legal reasoning used would lead to worse conditions for African Americans as private racial discrimination in the sale and renting of property was all but endorsed by the
Even in 1890 16 black members of a council apart of the Louisiana General Assembly, came together and passed a law to prevent black and white people from riding together on railroads(A Brief History). Most of the blacks were scared of the whites not knowing who was going to lie to the mobs or police to have them get in trouble. Because of this the blacks would take the jim crow laws and would make parts of it actual laws so they could be seperated. Even in a trial to end the lynching blacks went and voted to be lynched so they wouldn't have to live in this life on the edge not knowing what could happen(Ku Klux Klan History) With over the 3,400 lynchings at least 300 of those lynchings were whites only. The KKK (the second version of the klan) would go after whites if they were defending the blacks or even if they aren't following their religion to a perfect replica(Lynching
Plessy vs Ferguson was a controversial case which came up with the phrase "separate but equal. " The case started when Louisiana tried to establish a law that would segregate blacks and white on trains like many states had done. However the black community in New Orleans did not like it however the state legislature approved the law even though there were blacks in the legislature. In 1892 a man named Homer Plessy sat in the white compartment of a train and was kicked off the train by the conductor. Later, lawyer named Albion Tourgee argued that the law was unconstitutional and took it to Supreme Court where the Supreme Court rejected it and ruled in the favor of the law.
In the classic novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, Tom Robinson, a black man, is unfairly accused and later found guilty of a crime he didn 't commit. While talking to Jem and Scout Finch, Ms. Maudie says “Atticus Finch won’t win, he can’t win, but he’s the only man in these parts who can keep a jury out so long in a case like that. And I thought to myself, well, we’re making a step – it’s just a baby-step, but it’s a step.” During our recent “Socratic Seminar”, Adam Ross made an insightful comment. He argued that the events that took place in the courtroom that night were not a step in the right direction, as the time that the jury took was just part of the due process of the court.
According to Justice At Stake , “An ideal bench is representative of the larger community, including women, persons of color, members of the LGBT community, persons with disabilities and other underrepresented groups.” However, the verdicts that the courts pass can still be biased and unfair. Other opinions may include the fact that Jim Crow laws are now illegal. “1968 officially ended the ability of any state to discriminate, disenfranchise, or otherwise restrict any individual on the basis of race,” George Washington University stated. Nonetheless, movements like #blacklivesmatter and #PassERPA (End Racial Profiling Act) disagree.
This movement opposed the notion of making government larger and handing over rights to blacks that were supposedly hard earned by other citizens (403). Richardson argues that while the government was obliged to provide blacks political equality, “social” equality needed to be earned; social equality was considered the standing an individual achieved through merit and hard work. Although blacks accepted this, those that had prospered to the “better classes” still found that discrimination was still wanton. To battle these discriminations, blacks called for protective legislation (418).
As Sean Willentz wrote, “the supposedly antislavery Jacksonians were actually proslavery men who feared that emancipation would cause untold thousands of undesirable blacks to emigrate to the North,” (Willentz 220). Similarly, the Gag Rule allowed members of Congress to avoid dealing with slavery by making the states decide rather than the national government (PP 33). Most white abolitionists originated in the North where the economy did not depend on slavery. Although the North abolished slavery, white supremacy remained prominent in society.