According to Entman, “to frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation”(1993, p. 52). Entman’s definition of framing is one of many that currently exist, but is also one that is widely accepted. Framing theory implies that the way an issue is presented (the “frame”) influences the choices people make. De Vreese (2005) puts forward the point that by framing events and issues in particular ways, the media may shape public opinion, an idea supported by Mechanic (2005) who says much of today’s media are influenced by interests that shape readers of communication
To support our research we accumulated a number of scholarly articles, in which we analyzed in relation to our research question. We started by researching the framing theory, which is the concept of viewing an issue individually rather than looking at the bigger picture. The framing theory in media is when the focus is put on one event rather than putting it in context. It is also related to the agenda setting theory, in which a certain agenda or interest encoded in to the method. In the journal article “framing, the news media, and collective action” Charlotte Ryan speaks about the theory of framing and how it is applied in news media and he also analyzes news material in which framing is used to convey a certain message (2001).
Often such work portrays a particular configuration of statements, symbols, and meanings as an example of underlying and enduring collective understandings produced in extended ideological struggles. The epistemological assumptions behind such representations are that the rationality of the elements establishing the frame map to some corresponding consistency in a belief system. This is seen as particularly important for purposes of frame alignment. However, the presupposition is that this framing discourse is an internally stable enough tool for the communication of meaning so that interpretive strategies for mobilization and action are possible. In many of their analyses, frame analysts also assume some isomorphism between their abstractions and the ways in which people actually use framing
According to communication studies, in order to adequately convey true messages to the world, there are a few elements that have to be examined in which are who the broadcasters are, what the content of the media interprets, through which form of channels, the viewers as well as the effects it has brought and will bring to the audiences (Shoemaker & Reese, 1996, Pg.21). However, these elements are not precise as they only focus on what is important and favourable to them, which are the audience as well as the effects it brings, and to achieve that, the application of framing and agenda setting is enforced, and this in turn creates a perception of reality to the world. Though the content of the media focuses on incidents happening in the world, they also pose the ability to select, frame and omit certain components of the full story. This manipulates the representation of reality and thus constructs a perception of reality to the audiences. For example, Televisions would deceive people visually through the use of camera angles and other means.
In defining communication Katherine Miller (2004) stating that "conceptualizations of communication have been abundant and changed substantially over the years ". Its mean communication is erratic and changed pass through generation. There is many way to interpret and define our understanding in communication. Communication theory is a social process in which individuals employ symbol to establish and interpret meaning in their environment. In defining communication theory there is five key terms which is social, process, symbols, meaning, and environment which can make us more understand about it.
Winkler (2009) Defined gave great and easy definitions of the main terms in his paper, which can be understood by the reader. He demonstrated the topic clearly from different aspects. In the other hand, his paper was very broad for me and it talked not only about the cultural theory and visual communication, it also included some scientific aspect and how it relates to art. That could benefit some other researchers who are interested in relationship between science and visual communication. Chen (2007) introduced the topic by defining a particular type of culture (subculture).
The theory explains “how individuals use mass communication to gratify their needs” (Burgeon, Hunsaker and Dawson, 1994, cited in Udende and Azeez, 2010, p. 34). The theory holds that “people influence the effects that mass media have on them” (Anaeto et al, 2008 cited in Edegoh, Asemah and Nwammuo, 2013, p. 23). The assumption of the theory is that people are not just passive receivers of media messages; rather, they actively influence the message effects. Media audience selectively choose, attend to, perceive and retain media offerings on the basis of their needs, beliefs, etc., thus, “there are as many reasons for using the media as there are media users” (Anaeto et al, 2008, p. 71). Uses and Gratification theory has also been used in models that attempt to identify how people choose among media.
This is a term which is used to describe the changes in the media and political system in past fifty years and also looks at how society and culture has changed in relation to this. Politics in itself has become a much more mediated sector, politicians are now obsessed with their media image and try and influence the media as much as possible as the media in turn influence society (Strömbäck 2008). The media have become the most important source of information and it shapes public opinion as individuals become passive followers thinking about what the media tell them to. The media don’t have the power to the the public what to think but they are able to tell them what to think about and this can be a dangerous form of power as individuals themselves do not realize they are being influenced. Strombach (2008) looks at four different phases of mediatization.
Conceptual framework plays several interrelated roles in the progress of science. Their overall purposes are to make scientific feedings meaningful and generalizable. According to Polit and Hungler (1999) “Conceptual frameworks represents a less formal and less well developed attempt at organization phenomena than theory and deal with abstractions that are assemble by virtue of their relevance the common theme. The Conceptual framework adopted for the present study is based on the general system model given by Von Bertanffy. The model is characterized by input, process and output.
(SAGE) ORIGINS Prior to the emergence of Cultivation Theory, the dominant theories/research governing mass communications were based on tactical interventions focused on selling a particular message for insitutions(1…S & M) The research offered the view that the output from the communication process was defined in terms of ‘effects’ or short-term changes. The then common understanding was that these ‘changes’ were in direct response to tailored, specific, targeted messages. This was seen as applicable across the political, economic, commercial and social spectrum. Through his concept of Cultivation, “Grebner attempted to devise a new broad based approach to the study of mass communications, one that focused on the process of mass communications itself. ’( S&MORGAN) Grebner defined communication as ‘interaction through messages’ Grebner noted that ‘ the cultural transformation of our time stems from the extension of the industrial technology revolution into the sphere of message production’.