Racial Profiling or Criminal Profiling When thinking of policing, one must understand the day-to-day struggles that a police officer faces. Every day police officers have to use discretion on how to handle situations they encounter. With each of these situations, an officer has contact with different ethnic groups. Many times these situations result in arrest, tickets, and occasionally a police officer shoots a suspect. When different ethnic groups have encounters with police some insist that the police racially discriminated against them.
He also argues that this is a cycle that inevitably results in a trans-generational marginalization of the black race. On top of this, he argues that the white middle class are unrelenting with their methods of depriving black advancement in American society. Knowledge of this incites many blacks to occupy dead-end jobs, or to settle for mediocrity in the face of adversity. A large number of black males in America find themselves forced to take jobs that offer no security, or socioeconomic growth. He also contends that many blacks are not very literate and therefore left behind in cultural revolutions like the information age.
In some cases, police harassment simply meant people of African descent were more likely to be stopped and questioned by the police, while at the other extreme, they have suffered beatings, and even murder, at the hands of White police. Questions still arise today about the disproportionately high numbers of people of African descent killed, beaten, and arrested by police in major urban cities of America. Since the mid-1900s the words law enforcement and policing have been used interchangeably. In order to understand the present, one must understand the past relationships between law-enforcement and African-Americans. The Webster’s Unabridged Deluxe defines black as of the darkest color; opposite of white ; a Negro; dirty; evil; wicked; without hope.
Racial profiling is a very important issue that individuals in society face every day. This problem occurs in low income or poverty-stricken areas throughout cities and communities across the nation. Hundreds of anecdotal testimonials allege that law enforcement officials at all levels of government are infringing upon the constitutional rights and civil liberties of racial and ethnic minorities through a practice called “racial profiling” (Ward, 2002). So what is racial profiling? According to the National Institute of Justice, racial profiling by law enforcement is commonly defined as a practice that targets people for suspicion of crime based on their race, ethnicity, religion or national origin (National Institute of Justice, 2013).
Like many other problems, Racism has existed throughout the history of mankind. The definition of Racism is being discriminant and disrespectful towards a racial group with the belief that your own race is superior. Racism has changed the world and how people view each other. This belief that ones race is superior has lead to create violence, stereotypes, health problems and hatred in the world. White Americans’ support for segregation sprang from a widespread belief in black inferiority and that blacks’ disadvantaged status tended to reinforce this sentiment (Harris and Leiberman).
What effect did Jim Crow Laws actually have on Americans in their daily lives and how do you know? Jim Crow laws had a major effect on African Americans everyday during the Jim Crow era. In their daily lives, African Americans had to do different things than what white people had to do. White people were racist towards blacks in almost everything where both races were involved. Jim Crow laws were unfair towards blacks.
In the early 20th century, the black people were facing social rights issues most of the time, treated unfairly, and being separated from the whites. For instances, they did not get the rights to vote and get proper education. Such acts reflect that the blacks were still much being discriminated by the whites. With the dawn of 20th century, researchers could not find much evidences about the racial discrimination due to the illiteracy rate of the black people. The major racial discrimination in the 20th century happened with the formation of the separatist movement called the Ku Klux Klan.
Social status is the position of a person, a group within the society. In racism, there have always been problems of social status and labeling. In a society or environmental culture, African-Americans were always positioned or ranked at the lowest level within the society, and they were always labeled as the criminals and the bad guys. Which is similar to the story of Killing the Mockingbird. Why would Tom Robinson be labeled as a rapist right away without strong proofs of his innocence?
Langston Hughes was one of the millions of Black American who faced systemic injustice simply because of their skin color. A choice that no human can make for themselves. This inequality affected Black Americans like Langston Hughes as early as birth. Several laws supported inequality and segregation. Hughes was often fueled by the injustice he faced.
Around the 1930’s and 1940’s there was extreme racial judgment against the African American community. They would immediately be put down and racially profiled by many. By Being different from the White people it held them back from living their lives freely. Socially they were led to live a failed lifestyle because of the racial and economic forces that helped mold and poked at the African Americans like Bigger to live up to the typical stereotype. Wright puts Bigger in a hostile , brutal social environment which helps shape Bigger Thomas, and also puts a harsh eye on the Whites of the community.
This problem affects everyone including non citizens of the United States they are even at a higher risk of being discriminated by police officers. Some police officers have racial hatred against religion and ethnicity of people. Author Leonard Pitts Jr describes how specifically African Americans are the main target of police brutality. “Of course, the disparity in how people are treated by the police is based on their race. It is shameful, It is deadly.” These people will suffer from this if this isn’t resolved.
A functionalist studies society as a whole and with racial profiling in New York and other cities it causes a big dilemma. In order for there to be change the judicial branch needs to decide if random stop and frisk (mainly targeted towards minorities) is constitutional. Not only does it degrade that person but it also violates the person’s right of being treated with equality. The reason why cops racially profile black people or minorities is because of their material and non-material culture. When cops see a black man wearing a hoodie their minds are already wondering what is he up
Racial profiling can cause multiple problems. Several law enforcement agencies have gone through expensive litigation over civil rights concerns. Police-citizen relations in those communities have been strained, making policing all the more challenging. Most importantly, racial profiling is unlikely to be an effective policing strategy as criminals can simply shift their activities outside the profile (e.g., if racial profiling begins with police stopping black males in their teens and twenties. The "cumulative impact of racial discrimination accounts for the special, way that blacks have of looking at and evaluating" their experiences in public encounters (Feagin, 1991:115).
Some would argue that the police are doing their job and using the skills they have learned. The ones they are using however, are over the top and resulting in injury or death of the people they are arresting. In a “study—which gathered data voluntarily reported to the FBI from 2011–2012, tracked by race (excluding Latinos)— found that 70 departments from Connecticut to California arrest Blacks at a rate 10 times more than people of other races” (Catalan, DiversityInc). In addition, they are using these harsh tactics on primarily African Americans, who most of the time are getting stopped for a traffic violation and end up being hurt or killed. In this case, many officers are abusing their powers, shooting people, and claiming it was an act of self
Thesis In our generation of black teens, racism has had the most detrimental effects on them. African americans have delt with years of discrimination and oppression from other races, mainly whites. Racism has brought out protests, riots, and the BLM movement. Blacks and other minorities feel that there is no freedom or equality in America. Racism has also affected the way blacks perceive the police force and are unsure of whether or not they will be protected or killed.