Jerome s. Bruner, Jacqueline J. Goodnow and George A. Austin’s ‘A study of thinking’ clearly conveys through their work that attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing and can have a powerful influence over behaviour. There are a number of different factors that can influence how and why attitudes form. Either by a direct experience or by observation, attitudes form directly in response to whom and what the individual reacts too. Social roles also relate to how people are expected to behave in a particular role or context. Attitudes can be learned in a variety of ways.
Culture also has types and levels. According to Yvette (2009:98-100), culture can be influenced by many factors. For example, people behavior’s can influenced by family, politics or even friends. The types and levels of culture as follows: 1) Universal culture refers to culture of humans and nationalizations. Its about their daily life, values, and so on.
Elements of culture Culture can be defined as “ the system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors and artifacts that the members of society use to interact with their world and with one another”( Zoin and Kozleski, 2005). Generally, culture is considered as visible traditions such as food, and people usually be assumed by single cultural indicator. In fact, culture is an aggregation of thoughts, feelings, attitudes, beliefs, values and behavior patterns that are shared by people ( Zoin and Kozleski, 2005). Significantly, culture is not stable but changeable. In most cases, people usually change their views actively when they have opportunities, while in other situations, people change their culture positively because of the transitional
Cultural Factors: Culture is the part of every society and is the significant cause of a person’s wants, needs, and behavior. The influence of culture on consuming behaviors is different and varies from country to country. Therefore marketers should be cautious in analyzing diverse groups
Two people coming from two different societies will have different culture. The reason for this is because culture is acquired throughout the person’s life experiences in the social environment in which one grew up. Culture is therefore, learned. Anthropologically, Edward Tylor (1871, as cited by Tharp, 2009) define culture is a “complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (p.1). Tharp (2009) further argues that “culture involves three basic human activities: what people think, what people do, and what people make” (p.1).
What is culture? Culture can be described as the system of beliefs, values, artifacts and behavior. It is a common denominator so that the actions of individuals from a group are understandable to another group. Different people in different societies can have a different culture, but there also are some similarities. It can be described as norms and social behavior found in human society.
Culture has been defined by Hinde (1987,p3-4) as “better regarded as convenient label for many of the diverse ways in which human practices and beliefs differ between groups.” Human development is a cultural process as human beings across the world differs in numerous ways, by their beliefs, traditions values and norms. We all differ in the way we speak(language), the food we eat, the way we dress up and also our religion. The culture of a particular society defines who they are and differentiate them from the others. But what is culture? In the first part of the following essay, we will examine how culture affects human development, resulting
Society expresses the world view in their language and world view can be shaped by the culture and language that is common in particular society. Language is applicable in a given society to express and sustain culture and cultural associations that exist in a given society. These deeply interrelated features of language and culture gives me a base to my essay to show how language express culture and culture governs how we use language. WE may say that Language is what the members of a particular society speak. However, speech in almost any society can take many very different forms, and just what forms we should choose to discuss when we attempt to describe the language of a society may prove to be a contentious matter.
According to Hofstede (1980), culture is the “collective programming of the mind” that differentiates one group of people from another. It is the variety of beliefs, customs and traits of a religious or social group that serve as the identity of people living in a specific place. The term ‘culture’ is used for nations as a whole. On the other hand, ‘subculture’ is a term that is being used for the level of an institution, occupation or family. Within the nation, subcultures of one organization may share the same trait with other organizations (p. 26).
Culture is a distinctive way of life of a people, the collection of habits, ideas they learn, and a design for living. It is also a collection of ideas and habits which people learn share and transmit from generation to generation. Macionis and Plummer (2007) says culture is the designs for living, the values, beliefs, behaviour, practices and material objects that constitute a person’s way of life. Ragman, Collinson (2006) also says culture can be defined as “the sum total of the belief, rules, techniques, institutions, and artifacts that characterize human populations” or “the collective programming of the mind.” Culture varies from society to society and is built on a number of major components such as symbols, language, music, manners and customs, religion, values and attitudes, norms, and material culture; have to be taken into consideration when doing business in a foreign country. Culture is shared by members of a local group like Jamaican, American, Chinese, and European.