The main objective of this essay is to describe and investigate the structure of the government in the ancient Greece’s most powerful city states, namely, Athens and Sparta. Both city states have gone through various cycles of wars, reforms, social upheaval and unrests, and each of these elements has had influenced the development of the governmental systems that we have bettered or inherited today. Athenians saw the need for fundamental changes in the government, allowing them to pave the way for direct participation of their citizens and citizen’s initiative in the democracy and elimination of the some oligarchical elements. The Sparta, although not as democratic as Athens, allowed women to be far more than reproductive machines whom were expected to live only to please the men.
1 INTRODUCTION Power and authority are the most important aspects of politics as such way of thinking comes a long way from the earliest thinkers such as Plato and Aristotle to mention few. They are the fundamental features of state in politics, focusing on who should have the power and authority over the people and who should rule them. During the time prior and after the birth of states, political authority has always been a major concern with regards to who should rule and how and who shouldn’t. Therefore this issues need to be addressed in a way that will at the end benefit the society. Plato is the thinker or theorist who came with addressing who should rule in a political environment in what Plato outlined that only Philosophers should rule.
What are two Greek city-states that you know? I know two popular city-states of Ancient Greece: Sparta and Athens. Sparta and Athens are known as city-state with many contrasting beliefs. Sparta was a strict military society while Athens was a free democracy. Sparta prohibited any new ideas while Athens accepted it.
Ancient Sparta has often been referred to as one of the most dominant military forces in history. During Sparta’s time of dominance, Spartan forces employed tactics of intimidation and sovereignty. Spartan soldiers dedicated their lives to training and preparing for battle, enabling them to create a fierce, dominant military. Sparta used their military for both protection and conquering, maintaining a stable economy and civilization. The Spartan military was able to dominate for so long because of superior military tactics, extensive training and discipline and advanced weaponry and armor, and intimidation and help from the gods.
Sparta’s combative endowment had a high demand for Spartan bred male warriors (Pomeroy, 1975). In order to procreate strong and healthy male offspring, Lycurgus believed that child-bearers had to be strong and healthy too (Plutarch, 2nd Cent. A.D.). In fact, the early historian, Plutarch, wrote, “he [Lycurgus] ordered the maidens to exercise themselves… to the end that the fruit they conceived might, in strong and healthy bodies, take firm root and find better growth,” (Plutarch, 2nd Cent. A.D.). For this reason, Spartan girls had the same rations of food as the Spartan boys (Pomeroy,
The Persian naval force was protecting the land powers from being outflanked and after they were pounded the more drawn out had that protection. While the Greeks had not a lot of general triumphs in battle they had some key triumphs. The Battle of Thermopylae is an instance of an indispensable achievement for the Greeks. From a key perspective, by protecting Thermopylae, the Allies were making the most ideal utilization of their powers. For whatever length of time that they
This allowed for Sparta to forget about their state, and go on the offensive. Another example that ties this conflict together is the aspect that Athens a democracy could elect such ignorant leaders who only care about their own glory. Overall, Athens, a democracy, would last longer, as evident by their ruins, and Sparta, an oligarchy, would not last long because as always, an oligarchy will always
Both city-states agreed on that and found a way to make a government that worked best for their established guidelines, both also decided to exclude women and slaves from their governmental structures and felt that an established grouping of selected men would be in power. The differences between these two city-states would be that, “Aristocratic cities like Sparta were oligarchies. (Brand, n.d.)” meaning the ruling of a few.
Who held public office? What rules governed the selection of public office holders? In Sparta, native Spartan boys who were healthy by birth survived and became soldiers (Brand, n.d.). The Periokoi who were in Laconia and were dominated by Sparta by 750 BCE were not Spartan citizens nor slaves, but they were inferior to Spartans (Brand, n.d.).
Crito Prompt In Crito, a student of Socrates, Crito, makes several arguments as to why Socrates should not drink the hemlock, but flee the city. In one of his responses Socrates explains to Crito that one should not base his decisions on the opinions of the majority. In another response, Socrates asserts that a citizen should follow the laws of the state. The state of Athens is a democracy and, as such, is ruled by the people (Cartwright). As the people are the majority of Athens, the state is comprised of the majority.
Sparta was a civilization in ancient Greece that grew in power when defeating the neighboring city-state, Athens, in the Peloponnesian war. Sparta is made up of a warrior society meaning the values were centered on loyalty to the state and military. During the Archaic Age, Sparta and Athens became dominate polis, although both cultures are opposing. The Spartan people were very militaristic and expansionists; they believed the strength in their city-state come from the strength of not only their foundation but from their people. Every male born was expected to become a strong warrior to one day grow up and defend their home; while the woman stayed and took care of the land.
There is no one clear definition of what it means to be a hero. Heroes can range from warriors to parents to friends and even children. Stanley Kubrick’s 1960 Spartacus’ title character is an example of a hero in the form of a warrior who fights against oppression in the Roman Empire. However, at the beginning of the film, Spartacus is not a hero.