For instance, according to Kidane Mengisteab, the “Greater Horn region is one of the most conflict-ravaged areas on the African continent where the populations of the region have endured many inter-state and intra-state armed conflicts during the post-independence era” (Kidane, 2011:7). Similarly, other scholars explained the very insecure environment of the region as “Violent conflict is more the norm than the exception in the Horn of Africa” (Tadesse and Yonas 2007:1). The Ethiopia pastoralist ethnic groups of Afar and Issa are part of this politically sensitive region. Conflict between the ethnic groups caused by traditional cattle raids and competitions on pasturelands and water resources has been common. However, according to Asnake (2002), their conflict has been intensified and transformed in to frontier conflicts after the introduction of ethnic federalism and restructuring of the state post 1991.
Capitalism polarizes a society economically: the very rich and the very poor. Capitalism creates large scale economic inequality which, in turn, can engender grievances among members of a society fueled by the haves and not haves. Capitalists argue that, open/free market provides the opportunity for anyone to freely compete and pursue their desired choices; however, the religious moral argument castigates the capitalist economic order mainly because of the moral implications for members of a society as a whole. Greed – natural or nurtured – obliges individuals to accumulate excessive wealth. These patterns can be clearly observed in the capitalist economic environment where persons with higher economic capital dominate persons with lower capital.
The “moral victory” stands in contradiction with “abominable terrors” and “abominable satisfactions”. Conrad uses this contradiction to emphasize the price of Kurtz’s moment of reflection and realization. Although he finally realizes how his actions have impacted numerous individuals, this realization has come at the expense of those who suffered under the colonialists. The word “abominable” is used to emphasize effect that greed and destruction had on the inhabitants of the Congo jungle. It was chosen specifically to create a stark contrast with the idea of morality and “moral victory”.
“According to this partition, where past conflicts are seen as a righteous struggle of grievances, the present conflicts are seen as the egotistical struggles of greed”. The division of greed (Acquisition of primary commodities for self enrichment) and grievance (economic inequality, lack of political rights, and marginalization of claimants to the natural resource) factors outlined by Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler are widely used for the purpose of this paper. The thesis is in qualitative form and it is theory orientated as it aims to review the theoretical debate. The study is a descriptive, explanatory- synthesis and single case-study. The study employed the case study method by analyzing a wide range of secondary sources on or about the greed vs. grievance theory to the Niger Delta
Due to the natural hazard and human activity, Somalia suffered devastated instability. After cold war the United States had heavily engagement with serious implications in Africa. It is within the structure of new development in that area and competition with its old allies, that US change his policy and emphasizes on economic imperatives,
freely declaring greed based inspirations would reduce their backing. As an outcome, their fundamental explanation for the onset of conflict is insatiability, fighters care only for the financial acquisition that they can acquire from primary commodities under conflict. Among the economic factors that influence the risk of conflict, natural resource dependence, in particular, appears to play a significant part. Statistical analysis of previous conflicts propose that high “primary commodity” dependence is one of three economic factors which amplifies any country’s risk of conflict, the other two being low levels of income per capita and a slow rate of economic growth or active economic decline (Collier & Hoeffler 2002). Further on Collier and
Aastha Yadav Parag Jyoti Saikia World Civilization 12 March 2018 How Does Colonization and Global Economy effect on African Society? Colonization refers” Process of controlling power by dominant group over recessive group or area” Europeans came Africa for trading purpose and introduced slavery that deviated Africans life and society. Colonization and global economy effect Africa, it damaged tradition economy, culture, political policies and dramatically it effect on land and labor. Globalization and colonization often increased tension and led to violence among ethnic groups. A part of it Europeans also built Africa in terms of education, development and growth, reformed political and social policies, new technology came out etc.
A volatile government produces grievances which is the direct result of the fight involving the state and rebels over natural resource rents; it simply means; states ’greedy’ actions generate volatility, that in turn activates grievances which leads to conflict. Though this does not match the Niger Delta case rather it proves that the greed cause is the leading force to the grievances that set off the conflict. The greedy Nigerian Government uneven oil benefit distribution toppled with structured marginalization against the Deltans created horizontal inequalities that paved way for grievances that on its turn led to
As Rose Ackerman assumes, “Demands for greater transparency and integrity in government often become more insistent as per capita income rises” . It necessarily follows that corrupters are strongly motivated to restrain the economic growth of underdeveloped or developing countries in order to be able to pursue their illegitimate activity. Hence, corruption, apart from being arguably morally unacceptable, actually prevents from the gradual advancement of economics. It seems likely that those disadvantaged countries affected by corruption will never start enhancing their trading capabilities until they get rid of corruption itself and they appear to be constantly trapped into a regressive
Globalization has badly affected the condition that is deforestation. As indicated by Wikipedia Encyclopedia, globalization is frequently seen as a main driver of deforestation. The expanding utilization of common assets because of expanded request prompts consumption and furthermore the evacuation of biological systems because of increment in populace, have had a substantial negative effect on the earth. Broad deforestation has happened worldwide with the logging business being fuelled by the requirement for dispensable items. Along these