SOPHIA COLLEGE Protein-DNA Interaction MAYUR GAIKWAD 05/05/2015 INTRODUCTION Protein–DNA interactions play a major role in all fields of genetics from regulation and transcription of individual genes to repair of damaged sequences, even to the stabilization of DNA in chromatin and the replication of entire genomes. It is estimated that 2–3% of prokaryotic and 6–7% of eukaryotic genes code for DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, many of these proteins do not merely bind DNA, but also interact with other proteins and sometimes, as is shown in the example of RNA polymerase, only display theirfull activity when organized in multimeric complexes. SEQUENCE-SPECIFIC DNA BINDING Protein recognition of specific sequences on the DNA double
Gene mapping is the first step of identifying a gene. It is important to understand a genome of a species. And it is the starting point of many important studies. It can be used to identify genes responsible for diseases such as heritable diseases and cancer. Additionally, it is important to identify genes responsible for traits, such as identifying the genes that cause resistance to
Introduction The production of identical copies is called cloning, for example in identical twins they are clones where single embryos separate to become two and every single bit of their DNA is identical. So gene cloning means production of many identical copies of the same gene. Gene cloning requires a vector which introduces rDNA into the host cell and enzymes to introduce foreign DNA into vector DNA. Vector is plasmids and enzymes are restriction and ligase enzymes. Of course gene cloning has many research purposes, we can cover the cloned gene or protein products and also human can be treated with gene therapy.
This is because, during the DNA (Peter Daempfle, 2001) replication in a cell, each of the couple of DNA strands serves as a template to be used in the formation of a new strand this is due to the condition where the both of each daughter of a dividing cell usually inherits a new DNA double helix that contains an old and a new strand. The Punnett square can also be used in this situation in order to determine the new colors of the DNA strands for the new double helixes.Peter Daempfle (2001). `Essential Biology An applied approach` Kendall hunt publishing Company Correct Answer: n/a ********************************************************************************************************** 7. Transcribe and translate the following sequence of DNA: TTAACGCCA. There is a mutation that resulted in AAA being inserted after G. Predict how this mutation would impact the product of translation.
Some of the proteins are established to be included in mitophagy but not in common autophagy. Xenophagy is the process by which a cell directs autophagy against pathogens. The particular process of securing cells from the destruction is called Xenophagy. It has been widely affected for some of bacterial infections. It is given the powerful role of autophagy in tumor suppression.
However, the most common method of obtaining cells is by buccal (cheek) swab. When the DNA is collected from cells, a restriction endonuclease enzyme such as EcoRI is used to cut the cells into small pieces. This process is called restriction digest. Each individual has a specific DNA sequence, so thousands of DNA fragments of different size are generated as a result. Gel Electrophoresis is then used to separate these fragments on the basis of size and they are transferred to a membrane using the Southern Blot Method.
The polymerase chain reaction is a laboratory process in which a specific sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is amplified producing many copies of the specific DNA sequence. However, their must be components such as (DNA template, primers, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates (dNTP’s), buffer solution, and magnesium chloride salt solution) are required to carry out the process which undergoes through three major stages to make the copies of DNA segment. First stage is denaturation, after that annealing, then extension. However, this can be done if and only if the 3’ and 5’ ends are known, this helps in initiating DNA synthesis in which it is ensured that two short oligonucleotides acts as primer will anneal onto DNA strands. Polymerase chain reaction process is used as a diagnostic and research tool due to the fact that it can be done within a few hours which makes it a rapid assay.
Rather than just breeding the two organisms together with the desirable traits to reinforce the genes that are already there, the organisms have to be genetically engineered. The largest part of the whole idea of genetically engineered organisms is how the genes are added into the new plants. There are six steps to the process of genetically engineering organisms. The first of which is the isolation of the specific gene that they would like to extract and use in the creation of another organism. Scientists have to study the genetic makeup of the organism and isolate the specific gene that has the desired genetic characteristic, this process is also called mapping.
Besides that, the other category of cytokine-inducing bacterial molecules are mainly proteins and peptides that may bind to cell via CD14-TLR receptor system or act via other known, or unknown receptors (Casadevall & Pirofski, 2009; Wilson, McNab & Henderson, 2002). The action of modulins started with the secretion of modulins from bacteria or their direct interaction with host cells, activates the transcription of host cell cytokines. These cytokines can act in an autocrine manner, hence activating the host cell. It will either can be protective or cause pathology in infection (Wilson, McNab & Henderson,
Genetic engineering is the manipulation of an organism’s genetic material by transferring gene of interest from one organism into another to make new protein or modify the structure and function of an existing protein. Genetic engineering itself referred to various techniques used for modification of organisms through process of reproduction (“Genetic engineering”, 2016). Nicholl (2008) reported the first recombinant DNA molecule were generated at Stanford University in 1972. There are numerous methods in genetic engineering include recombinant DNA technology, microinjection, cloning technique, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), electrophoresis and shotgun. In the cloning technique, plasmid vector is used as a vehicle to transport desired gene