Reflection Literature Review The research on reflection focuses on what it is and the significance it has for learning. John Dewey wrote the book, How We Think (1933), which still has a strong influence on education. It provides a good starting point for looking at elements of reflection. Dewey defined reflective thought as ‘active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends’. He identified five phases or aspects of thinking: o Suggestions, in which the mind leaps forward to a possible solution.
Case Study – Bill and Melinda Gates 1. What do you think Bill and Melinda Gate’s personality traits are for each of the Big Five dimensions? Compare the two. The purpose of big five is to categorize the personality traits into different dimensions which can help us to understand better how people behave to others and how react in their life. The Big Five Model of Personality categorizes traits in different dimensions such as Surgency, adjustment, conscientiousness, and openness to experience (Lussier, 2013).
These dimensions were originally derived from a categorization of the objectives that are commonly used to describe individuals but then verified and refined through factor analysis, a statistical technique that is conducted to identify sets of correlated dimensions. Concerning the Big Five theoretical status today, there are two groups of thought: one sees that the evolution from the Big Five model to theory is still in progress while the other finds that modification has already been realised. For the Big Five framework to be considered a theory, the first group (DeYoung, 2010a; John and Naumann, 2010; Srivastava, 2010) quantified conditions to be satisfied, such as an elucidated evolutionary basis, an account of developmental aspects, an explanation of the underlying psychobiology, a specification of the hierarchy in the system, cross-cultural replicability, and so forth. The second group (McCrae, 2010; McCrae and Costa, 2008) assumed the Five-Factor Theory claiming all or most of the circumstances above to be answered, with the five dimensions being universal, and with strong biological and genetic bases (de Raad and Mlacic,
“Personality refers to those characteristics of the person that account for consistent patterns of feelings, thinking, and behaving” (Pervin, 2005). Personality also refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. There are different types of personalities that sometimes distinguished from personality traits. There are Big Five personality traits that are used to describe human personality, the five factor model (FFM). The five factors model includes openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism(Wikipedia, n.d.).
This book is divided into five chapters dealing with different aspects of the nature of realism and its method. Gilson begins the book by stating, “Knowledge is not a mere conceptual analysis it is the external reality that makes possible the intellectual act.” The first chapter of the book begins by addressing Descartes ‘Cogito ergo sum’ and the notion of idealism and how it is in direct contrast with realism. He bases the premise
Pavlov’s classical conditioning and E.L.Thorndike’s ‘Law of Effect’ (Iversen, 1992). Skinner (1957) later expanded his theory by including schedules of reinforcement. Maslow’s theory was inspired by E.S. Fromm’s theory of personality (Cooke, Mills & Kelley, 2005). His original five-staged model (physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualization needs from basic to less basic order) (Maslow, 1943) was later expanded to include cognitive, aesthetic and self-transcendence needs (Maslow, 1969).
The 5 basic value orientations studied were: human nature, man-nature, time, activity, and relational orientations. Results of the tests were sufficiently conclusive to warrant according the value-orientation theory an independent status in studies of human behavior. They studied a given culture by asking questions. Kluckhohn- Strodtbeck framework is for studying cultural differences along six dimensions, such as focus on past of future events and belief in individual or group responsibility for personal well-being. Hofstede framework is for studying cultural differences along four dimensions, such as individualism versus collectivism and equity versus inequality.
This model seems more fitted as it is build on consumer psychology theories which were originally developed by Howard (1963) and Nicosia (1966). EKB model is illustrated in figure below which states five sequentianl steps of decision making process. The first stage start with recognition of need or problem and consumer is looking to satisfy the need with best possible product. He began to search the information from internal as well as external factors. He get information from pubic sources and form personal sources which help in making final deciosn.
Instruments for data collection include the Counterproductive Work Behaviour (CWB) Questionnaire and the Big Five Personality Inventory (BFI). The hypothesis was tested using standard multiple regression. Results revealed that there was a significant joint
Personality is the complex of characteristics that distinguish an individual or a nation or group. It is an indicator that people use to identify one another besides personal information from what they perceived on other behaves. Knowing what is the type of personality you are will help you know yourself better and be able to maintain the good and improve the bad. According to the first personality online quiz fromVisualDNA, it shows the result of the five personality traits from the Big Five personality theory. It states that I am the alchemist who is a spontaneous dreamer which can make out-of-the-ordinary decisions, quick as a flash.