Therefore, a person who is highly competent and motivated towards excellence is more inclined to lead others and shows leadership qualities (Costa et al., 1991). Costa et al. (1991) also claimed that the proneness to maintain the environment’s cleanliness and well-ordered is closely related to Order. High-conscientiousness people have the willingness to obey orders out of their duty. Low conscientious also interrelated with low self-discipline.
The Big-Five Trait Taxonomy As a result of a thorough research on Cattell's and Eysenck's personality trait theories, the Big Five theory was formulated. This model states that there are 5 core traits which collaborate in order to form a single personality. These include: 1. Extraversion - tendency to be active, sociable, person-oriented, talkative, optimistic, empathetic 2. Openness to Experience - tendency to be imaginative, curious, creative and may have unconventional beliefs and values.
These dimensions include openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness as well as neuroticism. Each dimension includes several correlated characteristics (Costa & McCrae, 1992). To begin with, openness to experience refers to the degree of activity seeking and an individual’s appreciation of new experiences. Individuals scoring high on openness to experience tend to have unusual ideas, strivings for new behaviors and actions, and show a general curiosity (Costa & McCrae, 1992). In contrast to this, individuals scoring low on openness to experience are more conservative in their beliefs and attitudes (Costa & Widiger, 1998).
Individuals who were high on the introvert scale were usually well organized and preferred a strict routine. They were often seen as aloof or distant. Individuals who scored high on neuroticism were worriers, as well as frequently anxious and distressed. The individual would tend to be moodier and overreact to negative emotions. Those who scored high on psychoticism were usually aggressive, impulsive, and anti-social.
Critical Analysis The first personality method I will be talking about is the big five personality test which uses five major dimensions to do the test. The first dimension it uses openness (Big Five, 2017). The next dimension it uses is the conscientiousness. The third one is agreeableness. The fourth is the extraversion.
Maslow's Hierarchy is a five tier model of the basic human needs. Maslow thought that people were motivated to achieve certain needs, and that some needs were more important than others. The five tier model can be divided into two separate categories, Growth needs: Transcendence, self actualization, aesthetic needs, cognitive needs, and Deficiency needs: esteem needs, love and belonging needs, safety needs, physiological needs. Maslow believed that individuals must lower their deficit needs, before moving n to the higher level growth needs. This paper will describe that five tier model, and it will give an in depth analysis on what types of characteristics that are commonly found in the people who achieve those needs.
Trait adjectives highly related to trait procrastination (Study 1) included ‘undisciplined’, ‘lazy’, and ‘disorderly’. Trait procrastination in Study 2 was highly related to lower scores on each of the six facets of Conscientiousness (Competence, Order, Dutifulness, Achievement-Striving, Self-Discipline, and Deliberation). There were also some relations to Neuroticism, primarily in terms of tentativeness (Study 1) or Impulsiveness (a facet of Neuroticism) in Study 2. Relatively minor links to the lack of Extraversion were noted, essentially in terms of inactivity. Implications of the main findings locating trait procrastination within the Big-five personality structure were discussed.
Next Conscientiousness, tend to be self-disciplined ,perseverant and careful. As workers, they tend to be responsible, achievement-oriented and task-focused. They may not work well in fluid situations where quick decisions and execution of work is needed / where spontaneity is important. They might be seen as overly concerned with unimportant details. Lastly, openness to experience.
It is considered that personality relates to the specific traits a person displays. A trait is a characteristic, which can be related to a person, for example ‘laziness’. Therefore Peterson (1998) suggests that is a combination of these traits which results in personality. As with any construct in psychology there are numerous theories behind personality. The most common used theory in the literature currently is The Five Factor Model of Personality (FFM) used by many in their writing (Wiggins, 1996; Bleidorn et al.
However, managers who have low extraversion tend to be more serious. Secondly negative affectivity, is when the person shows negative moods and emotions and always feels distressed. Managers who have high on this tend to be angry all the time and complain about their and others’ work. But managers who are low on this do not tend to show the negative moods and emotions. Third agreeableness, is the tendency to have a good relationship with others.