“Personality refers to those characteristics of the person that account for consistent patterns of feelings, thinking, and behaving” (Pervin, 2005). Personality also refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. There are different types of personalities that sometimes distinguished from personality traits. There are Big Five personality traits that are used to describe human personality, the five factor model (FFM). The five factors model includes openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism(Wikipedia, n.d.).
Physiological states such as anxiety, stress, arousal, fatigue, and mood states also provide information about efficacy beliefs. Because individuals have the capability to alter their own thinking, self efficacy beliefs, in turn, also powerfully influence the physiological states themselves. Although this source is the least influential of the four, it is important to note that if one is more at ease with the task at hand they will feel more capable and have higher beliefs of
In low context culture, verbal communication is used widely while there is less of non-verbal communication. Americans has the characteristics of a low context culture, as they are very direct, focused and straightforward on tasks and have expectations of work presented to them. They also often take words too literally and insist on an explanation for everything being said. As it is assumed that people already know what to do, expectations of cultural behavior is unexpressed. Contracts are more important than relationships.
Since, the years to go individuals, situations, activities and their important role are identified and developed in identifying an individual’s personality. Several researchers have done studies on dispositions in analysing individual personality traits, these lead to look forward in certain kinds of attitudes and job related behaviour. Michele (1977) has described about individual behaviour and situations have been studies on dispositions. Studies on dispositions helped for the emergence of Big Five Personality traits models which was developed by Goldberg (1990). Big Five Personality traits model has divided the Personality into five broad traits, these are more useful in identifying different kinds of job related attitudes and behaviours.
Because of his multiple psychology degrees, I would consider him an expert in this topic. The Big Five personality traits consist of neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, openness, and extroversion. The characteristics of these traits are good predictions when trying to explain an individual’s normal behavior in different situations (“How Your Personality,” 2016). Highly neurotic people tend to be anxious and less confident in who they are while highly extraverted people tend to be more sociable and assertive. According to Dr. Shpancer, neuroticism is the best trait to use to predict someone’s love life.
It exists on a continuum and people with varying degrees of extroversion are usually categorized as being either ?more introverted? or ?more extroverted?, rather than being exclusively one type or the other. The ?more introverted? or shy ones are the ones who have trouble building close and satisfying relationships in an offline context, according to Asendorpf (as cited in Baker & Oswald, 2010, p. 873). SNS, a form of computer-mediated communication (CMC), is considered an effective means to reduce the problems associated with face-to-face communication for the population mentioned above.
Personality is a broad and multidimensional concept therefore it is differentlydefined by various psychologists. Some psychologists use this term to describe individual differences regarding emotional, social and intellectual functioning. While some other just focus on social and emotive characteristics of individuals (Malim, Birch, Hayward, &Wadeley, 1998). Pervin, Cervone, and John (2005) define personality as characteristics that refer to consistent patterns of feeling, thinking and behaving. The definition broadly addresses different aspects of person and explains regularities in feelings, thoughts and behavioral patterns.
According to Truity Big Five Personality Test (2018) “These people tend to be friendly, high energy ambitious and adventurous”. Agreeableness describes a person’s tendency to put the needs of others before their own needs, and how they cooperate instead of compete with others. “These people tend to be kind, sensitive and compassionate” (Big Five Personality Tests, 2018). “Those that score high in agreeableness tend to keep friends for longer and are less likely to fall out with people. The final trait is neuroticism, which describes a person’s tendency to experience negative emotions, including fear, sadness, anxiety, guilt, and shame” (The Big Five Personality Test, 2018).
Davey, Eaker and Walters (2003, p.349) pointed out the main five areas of personal factor are “extroversion, emotional instability, agreeableness, openness and conscientiousness”. As there is a word limit, three areas, extroversion, openness and conscientiousness, will be discussed here briefly. Extroversion simply means outgoing personality. If an extroversion person encounters difficulties, he is more willing to share his feelings with others. Thus, he may be easy to adapt to the difficulties as well as more resilient.
o Testing the hypothesis by overt, or imaginative action. Boud, Keogh, and Walker (1985) addressed emotions in the reflection process. They revised and reduced Dewey’s five aspects into three: o Returning to experience - recalling events. o Attending to (or connecting with) feelings- this has two aspects: using helpful feelings and removing or containing obstructive ones. o Evaluating experience- this