The Biological Basis Of Morality

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Many great minds in the history of the world tried to find the “birth” of morality; its development and its own place in the world. People provided tons of theories and lots of conjectures and still have not come to the exact theory about the origin of moral ideas. However, there are some theories which are close to the truth and are based on Immanuel Kant’s “Categorical Imperative”, Edward Osborne Wilson’s “The Biological Basis of Morality” and on Andres Luco’s work “The Definition of Morality: Threading the Needle”. Their theories differ from each other, however, in some places they share the same position on morality. This paper closely examines their theories from a various perspectives and answers to the question of where the origin of…show more content…
Wilson is absolutely sure in his point of view; and according to that in “The Biological Basis of Morality” he says “I believe in the independence of moral values, whether from God or not, and I believe that moral values come from human beings alone, whether or not God exists” (1998, p.112). In other words, it means that E.O. Wilson believes that moral values are independent from God or another perfect being; and come along with humans. It is not necessary to be a God to distinguish what is good and wrong. However, there is one common thing that Wilson shares with Kant and that thing is free will. Generally, free will is a process in our mind that exist despite circumstances and changes in the environment. Some scientists believe that there is no such thing as free will; and describe free will as a random event which occurs in our brain. However, there is at least one counter-argument against it which is human tendency to take responsibility for what he does and going beyond other expectations. Moreover, human beings cannot predict the future and know whether their actions are right or wrong. Therefore, free will which is part of nature can give us the answer to this…show more content…
Since the beginning of human existence, our world had different kinds of moral sources which were religion, family, friends. Different sources of morality provided different meanings of morality. Furthermore, morality differs from the one person to another in different circumstances. However, an idea of morality is to provide an instrument which will help the society to develop and keep the difference between human beings and animals. Following that, it would be a mistake to presume that religion and God to be the origin of moral ideas, because humans themselves invented an image of God and the rules that people should obey. Thus, it means that morality does not come from religion but comes from human nature; and people do not have to be religious to develop morality inside them, but definitely religions play a significant role in building a moral basis of the
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