The biocultural approach: defined as, “Perspective that considers the social, ecological, and biological aspects of health and how they interact within and across populations” (Wiley & Allen p. 9). While a cross-cultural approach compares “sociocultural situation to illuminate the underlying causes of variation or similarity.” (Wiley &Allen, p. 5). The purpose
The genetic architecture of a complex trait consists of all the genetic and environmental factors that affect the trait, along with the magnitude of their individual effects and interaction effects among the factors. The quantitative genetics approach has diverse applications. It is fundamental to an understanding of the variation and co-variation among relatives in natural and managed populations, of the dynamics of evolutionary change, and of the methods for animal improvement and alleviation
Each pattern is an expression of biopsychosocial integration which can be influenced by biological, developmental, cultural, social and religious factors. The functional pattern includes: 1. Health Perception- Health Management Pattern: - Perceived pattern of health - Knowledge of lifestyle and relationship to health - Knowledge of preventive health
To truly understand a person, one needs to analyze their interactions amongst their life. Bronfenbrenner, a psychologist, developed a bioecological model to conceptualize four different ecological systems that an individual comes in contact with and plays a role in their development. (Howe, 2018) In general, numerous factors and relationships of an individual interconnect to develop one’s sense of being. In my case, living with an economic disadvantage played a part in my microsystem and exosystem resulting in several developing factors. Furthermore, growing up in a low-income household can present challenges, yet it can generate fortitude and harmonious relationships.
This critique emphasises Foucault’s point in that, the ideas and ‘realities’ in biomedicine are, in fact, social constructions of ‘health’ in a particular manner within certain social, historical and cultural contexts (Walsh 2004). Hence, sociologists argue that the medicalisation of diseases is a social process. It is important to consider social contexts outside the West, where biomedicine is less dominant and so, similar symptoms and signs of diseases may not necessarily hold the same usual meanings (Walsh 2004). History has shown that diseases and health issues can differ and change over time and between cultures. The examples of recent medicalised ‘diseases’ as well as demedicalied ‘diseases’ in Western culture, defies biomedicine as stable and based on biological realities (Walsh 2004).
These factors are known as the Social Determinants of health. “The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age, including the health system” (WHO). Dalgren & Whitehead (1991) image of the social determinants of health aims to show the relationship between the person, their environment and their health. The modifiable factors, people’s age, gender and race lie in the centre surrounded by non modifiable factors like profession, housing, education and public policy. There is a direct relationship between people’s environment and their health, e.g.
Introduction Our phenotype is determined by the genotype, which is the genetic makeup of a particular organism. The phenotype is visible amongst the physical appearance of the organism. However, the genotype of the organism is not the only factor that affects the organism’s phenotype because there is a distinction between simple traits and complex traits. While simple traits represent that genes directly affect the phenotype, complex traits include the influence of various environmental factors that affect the genotype, which is revealed in the organism’s phenotype. Some of these environmental factors include the access to diet, nutrition, hormone therapy, various diseases, exposure to light, physical activities, geographical location, climate, and lifestyle.
However, emotions can be dependent on both the cognitive and biological factors of our body. Cognition is defined as the mental processes of obtaining and processing knowledge through experiences and information gained from our surroundings whereas biology is the study of the internal and physiological mechanisms of behavior of living organisms. There is a set of theories of emotion psychologists came up with in order to explain how the two factors interact in emotion. For example, Darwin’s evolutionary theory, the James-Lange theory, the Cannon-Bard theory, Le Doux’s theory, Schachter and Singer’s theory, and Lazarus’ theory. In order to determine to what extent cognitive and biological factors influence emotion, the theories that supports both
In relation to the findings of environmental influences and its effect on human behavior, this essay will be discussing two effects of the environment on physiological processes, provided with a variety of hypotheses and supported by research studies that have investigated these two effects. It has been argued that aspects in a surrounding environment can affect the physiological processes of the human brain such as neurotransmitters and hormones, in which the relationship between the environment and physiology is stated to be bidirectional—in this case, environmental quality can alter the condition of the cerebral cortex, which influences one’s behavior and experiences. One effect of an environment on physiological processes is neuroplasticity.