So, the creation of new markets with focus on non-customers to create demand using blue ocean strategy will be an interesting approach, besides other aspects and methodologies. One key point of Blue Ocean Strategy is how to create value and how to make customer comfortable and willing to pay for it. Innovation has a key role on this matter, but not only. It must
Blue Ocean focuses on how to link innovation to commercial value. While traditional strategy, or red ocean strategy, exploits existing demand, blue ocean strategy creates and captures new demand in the same manner that Nintendo did with the launch of the Wii. What Nintendo did was create an uncontested market space and make the competition irrelevant. Also in a red ocean, competing companies usually have to choose between differentiating themselves at the expense of pushing up costs, or stay low-cost and undifferentiated from
This is power that is backed by the threat of force. Inmates know that coercive power is always present, but it seldom has to be used to gain compliance. Coercive power ranges from writing a disciplinary actions to putting hands on an inmate to gain compliance on the low end of the spectrum up to lethal force at the highest end. Lethal force is rarely used inside a prison’s walls because weapons are strictly prohibited, but weapons are commonly used to guard the perimeter of the facility (Carlton & Garrett, 2008). Reward power is the power of a correctional officer to reward an inmate for positive, desired behavior (Hartzell, 2015).
Workers seek a fair balance between what they put into their jobs (inputs) and what they get out of it (outcomes); employees want to be treated fairly and likely to compare their treatment to that of their peers. This theory recognizes the motivational force of organizational space when rewarding for performance and how favoritism and inequities in the system can lead to job dissatisfaction and
The theory implies that during a social exchange, a person identifies the amount of input gained from a relationship compared to the output, as well as how much effort another person’s puts forth. Based on Adam (1965) theory, Huseman, Hatfield and Miles (1987) further suggest that if an employee thinks there is an inequity between two social groups or individuals, the employee is likely to be distressed or dissatisfied because the input and the output are not equal. The major concern in equity theory is about payment and therefore the cause of concern of equity or inequity in most cases in organisations. According to Adams (1963), when a person becomes aware of inequity, it causes a reaction in them, potentially some form of tension that is proportional to the magnitude of inequity present. It is because of this tension that an individual might react in a way that reduces the tension in him.
Focus: This strategy rests on the choice of a narrow competitive scope within an industry. The focus strategy has two components. (a) In cost focus, a firm seeks a cost advantage in niche market, (b) In differentiation focus; a firm seeks differentiation in its target segment. Examples are car manufacturers like Aston Martin, Rolls Royce, and Bentley. These companies target a niche market and manufacture the cars according to the customers required specifications.
Ms Hogan did not check in a detailed manner regarding the employees’ motivation levels. Reinforcement theory BF Skinner and his partners proposed fortification hypothesis of inspiration. It expresses that singular's conduct is an element of its outcomes. It is taking into account "law of effect", i.e., singular's conduct with positive outcomes has a tendency to be rehashed, however singular's conduct with negative results tends not to be rehashed. Fortification theory of inspiration neglects the interior condition of individual, Skinner overlooks i.e., the inward sentiments and drives of people and this was the problem with Ms. Hogan’s actions as well.
The leader power is uses to reward to get the work done or complete the task/goal. Power is the ability to influence others to attain a goal or engage in a selected behavior. The power of leadership breaks down into coercive, reward, legitimate, expert, and referent. The leader will use different powers kept the follows on topic and engage to the goal. The leader/follower situation framework contains the elements: leader, follower, and situation.
Research suggests that genetic factors influence certain aspects of personality (example, positive affectivity – negative affectivity, emotional stability, and extraversion) and these factors, in turn play a role in job satisfaction. (Judge, 2003) VALUE THEORY OF JOB SATISFACTION This theory takes a broader look at the question of what makes people satisfied. This theory argues that almost any factor can be source of job satisfaction so long as it is something that people value. Thus value theory focuses on discrepancies between what people have and what they want, the greater those discrepancies, the more dissatisfied they will be. This approach to job satisfaction implies that an effective way to satisfy workers is to find out what they want and to the extent possible, give it to them.
When applying these models on real-life cases, some problems may occur due to their limitations. For equity theory, since employees’ perceptions of equity are different, a particular level of inequity would lead to employees’ different reactions. Some employees may feel unfair and think about leaving their jobs to look for better opportunities. As a result, they may be emotionally estranged from organizations and put less effort into their work which could reduce the quality of work (Ananvoranich, 2004:88). For goal-setting theory, as Ceresia (2011:71-75) stresses, it is hard for managers to measure the degree of goals’ difficulty.