Weitzer is able to illuminate how there is a correlation between poverty and crime, “an interaction between (1) high neighborhood-level poverty and unemployment, (2) residents’ involvement in illicit survival strategies […], and (3) aggressive police practices – each of which contributes to popular alienation from and avoidance of the police, if not outright hostility toward them. This syndrome is more fundamental than the popular assertion that officers’ racial animus is the main problem.” (477). Because high crime areas have such a strong dislike and mistrust for the police, answering some calls become dangerous for the responding officers. While answering these calls officers become more alert and anxious. Most of the time when an officer makes an arrest or discharges his/her weapon it has nothing to do with race but it has everything to do with the crime.
Policing policies including broken windows and zero-tolerance policy have different limitations on what can be stopped. The broken windows theory gave police a wide discretion when stopping citizens. During the time when broken windows was implemented, citizens were able to get away with low-level crimes. Once zero-tolerance began, the officers became more strict in stopping citizens which would make them feel targeted for the wrong reasons, like the color of their skin. The zero-tolerance policy was implemented to update the police’s discretion of what to stop and to keep crime down.
Littering, speeding, pollution and every other ‘small’ law is at most a gateway to laws considered ‘bigger’ in aspects of the crime and its punishment when broken. Those who are not scofflaws and actually take in consideration to our society, can detect a true scofflaw and react towards their actions in a violent manner. When pollution, be it noise or waste, is committed around a ‘good’ citizen, he or she usually reacts in a violent tone to show that they do not condone the breaking of the small law. And the one who committed the crime, which in this case is pollution, would react back at an equal tone, causing something worse than pollution. The breaking of these ‘small’ laws is not to be taken lightly by justice and should have its consequences.
After revising the theory he come up into General strain theory of crime and builds its foundation in 1992. General strain theory argues that frustrations and anger leads someone to deviance and may result into committing a crime (Agnew, 1992). GST defines strains as negative life events and conditions which are commonly disliked by the people who experience it or negative experiences of a person in a given group (Agnew, 1992; 2001; 2006). Strain is often classified in two distinct types, the Objective Strain and the Subjective Strain. Objective
Social disorganization theory emerged from the early school of criminology and focused on the characteristics of neighborhoods which indicate a lack of collective efficacy that prevents deviancy and criminal behaviors. These aspects are summarized as poverty, high residential mobility, deteriorating physical conditions, homogeneity of residents and other social ills present. A neighborhood watch group collaborates with a neighborhood in order to organize themselves against aspects of social disorganization (Bennett et al, 2006), by improving neighborhood conditions, running patrols and reporting suspicious behavior to the police. The goal of this polices that, is to create collective efficacy which causes reductions in criminal behavior. The issue with neighborhood watch is that is characterized as a "black-box" where many aspects of multiple criminological theories have been incorporated making it difficult to determine which concepts are effective for reducing crime.
When policy and claimsmakers label crimes as social problems, they do not always account for all representations of crime. They neglect to realize that crime is a reality that filters through a series of human decisions running the full scale of the criminal justice system (Silver 265). Jeffery Reiman states within “A Crime by Any Other Name” that, “although there is a wide range of behaviors that the law defines as criminal, people tend to view crime as involving only certain kinds of acts committed by particular populations of individuals”. For example, the rhetoric presented within the War on Terror in the United States lead to moral panic which exaggerated and distorted perceived deviant behavior (Silver 330). Similarly, the rhetoric presented
My reflection after reading Chapter 12 is that I form the idea that when people in a society are not educated it increases the risks of crime. Crime is defined as any act that is against the law. The Court system is responsible for deciding which crimes should be considered worth punishing for. As we look at the two different types of crimes such as mala in se and mala prohibita. Mala in se is considered to be “inherently evil” meaning such as robbery, murder, rape, etc that people in society have decided that should be banned due to its evil inhuman nature.
Thrasher has analyzed these gangs in many ways to the extent or romantic life in gangs. He helped us distinguish the difference in stereotype gangs and then the actual facts involving them. Gang violence has took away families and happy homes. It has a negative effect on the United States and it should be banned from the U.S. Children is my big reason that I want gang violence to be stopped. Children are afraid to walk across the street because of gang violence.
It is necessary for those who refuse to accept unjust administration of punishment. Capital punishment is often justified by saying that by executing the murders birth of new murders would be prevented. Executions especially when they are more painful and public create a sense of horror and halts those tempted towards criminality to violate laws. In countries such as Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Nigeria and New York crime rates are exceptionally high and this affects the population there. The police also works inefficiently in these countries and the criminals easily escape from punishments.
This effects their lives and how they act in society on a daily basis. The public services are supposed to serve the public and make them feel safe and protected not scared, however police brutality only seems to be getting worse and reports say that the police use excessive physical violence which only contributes towards these allegations, many others have also noted that police brutality doesn’t just stop at physical abuse it includes emotional and sexual violence as well as verbal assault and psychological intimidation. A researcher called Bandes argues that the term brutality conveys more than police misconduct he says “it is police conduct that is not merely mistaken, but taken in bad faith, with the intent to dehumanize and degrade its
One’s behavior and thought can be changed by the environment that surrounds him or her, and in a good environment, people will gradually improve, but in a harsh environment, people will be influenced negatively. Gladwell introduces the Broken Windows Theory in his essay; he explains how broken windows will have a bad impression on one’s thought, which will end up more cracking windows. Gladwell explains “The criminal is actually someone acutely sensitive to his environment, who is alert to all kinds of cues, and who is promoted to commit crimes based on his perception of the world around him” (P156) According to Gladwell, a person’s character does not stay the same at all time. The surroundings are more influential and powerful regarding to
The Pilot made me think of modifying public behavior: “Broken windows theory”. The main notion of the broken window theory is that small crimes can make way for larger crimes. Consider a building with a few broken windows. If the windows are not repaired, the vandals wouldn 't think that it would be a harm to break a few more windows or eventually broke into the building. If none of the windows were broken criminals might be afraid of breaking in because they will get noticed easily.
However, Anderson refuses to neglect the truth: they are the villains. Slamming any pre-existing admirable outlook readers may have had, Anderson inquires, based on his observations, “the authorities, particularly the police, paid scant attention and sometimes abused the victims themselves” (Anderson, 27). Philadelphia is notorious for its high crime rate, marking the police as almost a necessity to the function of everyday life. However, due to the mistreatment of citizens, people began to refer to the police as “ineffective” and “unworthy of trust.” The safeness of an area is key to the number of individuals using that public space, ultimately deeming the police a negative factor. In addition to the negative safety element, policemen also partake in plain acts of racism.
The first was the Broken Windows Theory, which posits that if a neighborhood appears to be run down and appears to be generally uncared for by the residents, criminals reach the reasonable assumption that it will not be noticed if they commit a crime since the neighborhood is already in disarray. The second theory was Differential Association Theory, which explains that criminal behavior is the result of learning processes, meaning that a child learns positive attitudes towards criminal behavior from parents, close family members, and their close
Yes, I believe that it is necessary for police officers to be randomly drug tested. The duty that a police officer has is to protect and serve the city or town. If they are abusing drugs the officers cannot perform their duty to its fullest potential. More important though drug testing is important for the safety of civilians. If an officer is abusing drugs they could end up hurting civilians, whether getting into an accident on the road or accidentally shooting them thinking that they saw a weapon when there was not one.