When the heart contracts and pours blood in these arteries, the walls need to stretch to house the blood. The arterial hydrostatic pressure that results from ventricular contraction is the systolic blood pressure. The period between the heart constrictions, the elastic walls recoil to maintain the blood pressure. The arterial hydrostatic pressure between contractions is the diastolic blood pressure. The walls of these have a lot of elastin .Elastin is a fibre which is made up of proteins.
The parietal layer lines the inner regions of the fibrous pericardium, while the visceral layer lines the outer layer of the heart and therefore it is called epicardium. Pericardial Cavity A void space found among the two linings of serous pericardium is called pericardial cavity, which encircles the heart. Between the parietal and visceral layer is the pleural cavity, which holds the pleural fluid. About 20–30 ml in volume, this serous fluid acts as a lubricant and minimizes friction between the epicardium and parietal layer as the heart muscles expand and contract with the beating of the heart. Thus, the pericardial cavity allows the heart movement to be flexible.
• Systole is when the cardiac muscle contracts to push out the blood from the chamber they are in it. During ventricular systole the blood pressure increases in arteries. • Diastole is when the cardiac muscle is relaxed allowing allow the chamber to fill with blood. During ventricular diastole the blood pressure decreases in arteries. This leads to conclude that the higher blood pressure is the systolic pressure (for example 120 mmHg), and the lower blood pressure is the diastolic pressure (for example 80 mmHg).
The ECG signal that is non stationary has P, QRS complex and T waves. The duration of each of the waves signifies the electrical activity of the heart. P wave indicates the atrial contraction or depolarization. PR interval indicates the time duration for the travel of the depolarization wave from the atria to the ventricles. QRS complex indicates ventricular depolarization.ST segment shows the time between ventricular depolarization and the starting of repolarisation.
List the structures and functions of the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system consists of capillaries, vessels, nodes, and other organs that transport a fluid called lymph from the tissues as it returns to the bloodstream. The lymphatic tissues of the organs filters and cleans the lymph of any debris, abnormal cells or pathogens. It also transports fatty acids from the intestines to the circulatory system. 3.
The rate setting directly affects the number of mandatory breaths and the level of ventilatory support. Spontaneous breaths are allowed between mandatory breaths. DuoPAP has two set points; the therapist’s sets two pressure levels the inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) and expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP). DuoPAP is equivalent to pressure support ventilation with CPAP. The tidal volume depends on the patient effort and the difference between IPAP and EPAP (IPAP-EPAP).
Total lung capacity (TLC) is the measure of how much air is in the lungs after a breath. Then the amount of tidal volume (TV) is how much air a person takes in during inspiration. An individual exhales naturally, but can also make themselves breath faster. When an individual forces an expiration it can be measured by forced expiratory volume (FCV), which is how much air a person forces out during their breath. (RV) which is known as residual volume is how much air remains in the lungs after a forced expiration.
E.g. 99mTc-tetrofosmin (Myoview, GE healthcare), 99mTc-sestamibi (Cardiolite, Bristol-Myers Squibb now Lantheus Medical Imaging). Following this, the heart rate is raised to induce myocardial stress, either by exercise or pharmacologically with adenosine, dobutamine or dipyridamole (aminophylline can be used to reverse the effects of