Waste is produced by all sectors of the economy. Every person is a potential producer of waste. It is as old as the existence of human beings. In early times, in order to minimize the health impacts of wastes, transporting the waste out of residential places been the primary concern of authorities. After the end of the Second World War, a high rate of population and urbanization has brought an increased demand of urban and waste disposal land.
Agriculture revolution brought in new farming techniques, production of cash crops and raw materials for industries and new farm machineries. Crop rotation and land consolidation indirectly led to industrial revolution. As a result of these developments, there was a period of high productivity and low food prices which means people in England requires less money to spend in food. Hence, they could spend more on manufactured products. Thus, it can be concluded that industrial revolution resulted in a shift from agrarian societies to urban societies.
For instance, farm production, which was once done manually by hand and produced with the aim of feeding the immediate family, became commercialised. The invention of new machines such as tractors and threshing machines resulted in bigger harvests and the sale of agricultural produce for profit. The development of steam-powered machines and the popularisation of the production line in factories during this period led to more products manufactured in greater amounts for sale, steering up the cycle of demand and supply for the rapidly increasing population. It is therefore evident that the Industrial Revolution was a pivotal turning point in human history as it led to massive changes in the economy and the traditional way of living life for a great
Waste is produced by all sectors of the economy. Every person is a potential producer of waste. It is as old as the existence of human beings. In early times, in order to minimize the health impacts of wastes, transporting the waste out of residential places been the primary concern of authorities. After the end of Second World War a high rate of population and urbanization has brought an increased demand of urban and waste disposal land.
Rapid urbanization along with increasing industrial, economic and commercial development, have given rise to an increased generation of various types of waste. The amount of waste generation rates is related with the socio-economic development, degree of industrialization and climate. Generally, the larger the economic growth and increase in the percentage of urban population, the greater amount of solid waste is produced. For the municipal planners, n recent years, the management of solid waste continues to be one of the major issues due to rise in population levels. Without damaging the ecosystem and human population, planners are thus forced to consider alternate and available means of waste management.
Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Waste management in developing countries: The Integrated Sustainable Solid Waste Management (ISWM) Cities and towns in developing countries have for several decades been faced with a challenge of handling and managing solid waste adequately. The main reasons associated with these challenges have been mentioned as rapid urbanisation and growing populations in towns and cities which consequently led to increased generation of waste (Guerrero et al, 2013). The management of this solid waste by municipalities grew as a budget burden for each municipality due to the associated high management costs, lack of understanding of the diverse factors that affect waste management at different stages and the linkages that
The Industrial revolution has changed our history and has influenced the way we live today. It began first in the late 17th century in Britain, and was a series of changes in trade, technology, agriculture and manufacturing. A few of the foundations of the industrial revolution was development in agriculture and economy, the cascade of scientific discoveries and the politics and culture in Britain. The development in agriculture and as a result the increasing economy was a big factor as to why the Industrial Revolution happened in Britain. The pre-industrial societies were based on the cultivation and ownership of land, this was a vast foundation for social hierarchies, where the highest classes owned the land and the lowest worked on them.
Prior to the country’s independence in 1957, there were no proper sewerage systems and no need for a proper sewage treatment one due to the low population densities and very limited urbanized developments. Thus the governments have implementing to improve our country sewerage systems nationwide due to the rapidly increased of populations, urban developments and due to the wastewater contained increasing amount of household chemicals and detergents, and more toxic and other chemical waste from industry (Abu-Rizaiza and Sarikaya 1993). The design of the new era of sewerage systems in our country also contributes to the cost
According to Kofi Anan, the transformation of South-East Asia within a few years and the unprecedented pace of development in China and India which have lifted millions of people from poverty holes, are examples of what sustainable industrialization could do to any economy that engage in industrialization. This buttressed the modernist argument that an intrinsic relationship exists between industrialization and economic development (Todaro and Smith 2003; Przeworski and Fernando 1997; Rostow 1960). This further supports the assumption that there is hardly any country that developed without industrialization even recent growing economies tend to have growing manufacturing sectors (UNIDO,
Water, environmental impact, raw material, safety over lifecycle and energy use is some of the issue disturbing the industry. Indian chemical companies are at large investing in solutions to find relevant answers to the problems. 2. “Waste to wealth” programme by KCI generates clean and sustainable power directly from biogas. This programme also includes recycling of used water and converting distillery waste into useful bio-compost which is rich in soil nutrients.