It can be acquired through diseases, can be hereditary or result of birth defects. Other causes include wars or other armed conflicts, unhygienic conditions of living, poverty, geographical isolation, natural disasters, malnutrition etc. Thus, causes of disability go beyond mere medical conditions. For example, on account of malnutrition, incidence of anemia among expectant and nursing mothers between the age group of 15-19 is highest in India in the SAARC region. Also micro-nutrient deficiencies can lead to diseases like blindness, beri-beri, scurvy etc.
The National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) estimates that the lowest of potential STIs from the doctor (compared to India is 32.8% only 50.2%). While many strategies have tried to avoid health, physical and physical factors in the next few years, the final result is lower than estimates. These ST groups are culturally and economically diverse and the methods of overcoming their health problems are uniform and multifunctional rather than as special as possible for specialized groups. Strengthening existing human resources, bringing health services to the remote population, improving health awareness, facilitating community participation using innovative strategies, bringing about changes in the behavior of health care
INTRODUCTION According to WHO1 around 15 per cent of the world 's population, or estimated 1 billion people, live with disabilities and they are the world 's largest minority. Social exclusion is a multi-dimensional concept. It hampers the fruits of development to trickle down to the weaker sections of the society. Differently-able are one such excluded sections who are often deprived of their basic rights to development. In the medical model, individuals with certain physical, intellectual, psychological and mental conditions (impairment) are regarded as pathologic or abnormal; it is simply the abnormality conditions themselves that are the cause of all restrictions of activities.
According to World Health organisation (WHO) and World Bank (2011), about 15%, over a billion people, of the world’s population are disabled. More than half of these disabled persons live in developing countries and a large number of them come from poor backgrounds. Some of the common causes of disability include poverty, diseases, poor health, old age, and accidents. Disabled persons are the most disadvantaged people in the society. They are excluded in social and economic development across the world.
Indians are also threatened by waterborne illnesses. 1.5 million children are likely to die of diarrhea only and 73 million working days are misplaced in line to waterborne disease each year. The subsequent economic load is projected at $600 million a year. The harms of chemical pollution is also dominant in India with 1, 95,813 people in the country are affected by poor water quality. The main chemical limits of concern are fluoride and arsenic.
Beside this fact, hunger remains persistent in various regions of the world. At present, more than one million people in the world are suffering with hunger and poverty whereas 800 million have been reported to be chronologically malnourished. Malnutrition, under nourishment and other chronic unpreventable diseases become the cause of death for every 6 million children below the age of five. However, several millions more face retarded growth, mental instability, deafness and other disabilities on account of improper intake or lackage of vitamins and minerals. Since, last few decades, malnutrition together with Food Security has become a major, unique and novel source of concern both for developed, developing as well as for underdeveloped regions in the world.
Literature review Malnutrition in childhood: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem and a pathological condition that results when a person’s diet contains inadequate amount of nutrients(1). Malnutrition refers both under nutrition and over nutrition. But in common usage the word malnutrition refers to under nutrition and protein energy malnutrition. Malnutrition is the leading cause of more than one third of all child death(2). Globally, malnutrition is the major risk factor for all common childhood illnesses, and it increases the chance of worsening the conditions (3) and increases the chance of dying too(4).
Many Ghanaian children and adolescents are vulnerable to violence and abuse. Child neglect is rampant predominantly because of the growing incidence of poverty and high number of children, especially among poor families (Britwum et al., 2004). This is reflected by the high number of maintenance cases reported to child welfare agencies. In 2012 the Domestic and Violence and Victims Support Unit of the Ghana Police Service recorded 7044 maintenance cases. A lot of families are unable to provide proper nourishment for children resulting in malnutrition and stunting for many children in the country.
Poverty is more than the lack of income and resources to ensure a sustainable livelihood. The manifestations of poverty include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and skill training and other basic social services, social discrimination and exclusion as well as the lack of participation in decision-making (UMC, Book of Discipline 2012). The “United Nations” report on “Sustainable Development” states that over seven million people still live in extreme poverty of which majority of this population live on less than 1.9 dollars daily in Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. About 70% of the global total of extremely poor people account for this million population (UNDP 2016). The report further states that extreme poverty is
CHARACTERSTICS OF POPULATION OF ELDERLY Senescence, functional disabilities, financial insecurity and sickness characterize population of older persons. These characteristics make elderly highly susceptible to crime and elder abuse and render their plight miserable. Out of 81 million elderly in India, 51 million are poor. In metros, 60 per cent suffer from one or more diseases. Eighty seven per cent of them have no health insurance.